lecturenoteschap8-10-1slide

lecturenoteschap8-10-1slide - Carbohydrates- Chapter 8...

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Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides ldoses and Ketoses Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections odified monosaccharides Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond isaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins
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Carbohydrates * ____________ organic molecule on earth * (or yield _______________________________ these upon hydrolysis) * __________: energy storage (glycogen, starch) metabolic intermediates (ATP, coenzymes) part of DNA & RNA structural elements in cell walls of bacteria, fungi & plants exoskeleton of arthropods extracellular matrix of animals cell-cell communication/signalling
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Individual monomeric units are called __________________ (CH 2 0)n where n 3 _________________ (contain 2-20 monosaccharides) ________________ (two linked monosaccharides) _____________________ (> 20 monosaccharides) pure mono- & disaccharides are water-soluble, colorless in solution & sweet ___________________________ : aldoses & ketoses
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___________ : carbohydrate polymer ______________ : carbohydrate derivative where rbohydrate(s) are linked to a peptide protein or carbohydrate(s) are linked to a peptide, protein or lipid (i.e. proteoglycans , peptidoglycans , glycoproteins , glycolipids ) ___________ : study of role of glycans and glycoconjugates in living organisms
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______________ : compounds with the same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of their atoms D & L sugars differ only in steric arrangement of atoms about central C. They are non- superimposable mirror images (i.e. _____________ ) They differ in orientation of the crystals, in directions in which solutions rotate polarized light, and in selectivity of reaction with other asymmetric olecules molecules
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Fig 8.1 Fischer projections of: (a) L- and D- glyceraldehyde, (b) dihydroxyacetone
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Fig 8.2 Stereo view of L- and D-glyceraldehyde ) ) ) ) (L) (D) (L) (D)
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N (# of Cs) Name Example 3 triose 4t e t r o s e t 5 pentose 6 hexose For sugars with >1 asymmetric (chiral) carbon, D & L refer to chiral C furthest from aldehyde (or ketone) & correspond to D & L glyceraldehyde # of sterioisomers = 2 n where n = # of chiral C’s ______________ : sterioisomers that differ in configuration at only one chiral center
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Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides ldoses and Ketoses Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections odified monosaccharides Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond isaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins
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Fig. 8.3 Structure of the 3-6 carbon D-aldoses lue are the most common) (blue are the most common) You must memorize the structures of all the gars in blue! sugars in blue! xxxxxxxxx
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ig 8 3 ldoses ntinued) Fig. 8.3 ( aldoses continued)
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ig 8.3 ldoses ntinued) Fig 8.3 ( aldoses continued)
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Fig 8.5 Fisher projections of the 3 to 6 carbon etoses lue structures are most common) D-ketoses (blue structures are most common) xxxxxxxx
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Fig. 8.5 ( ketoses continued)
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Fig 8.5 (ketoses continued)
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8.2 Cyclization of Aldoses and Ketoses ig. 8.6 eaction of Formation of a hemiacetal Fig. 8.6 Reaction of an alcohol with: ) An aldehyde to (a) An aldehyde to form a hemiacetal t i f h i k t l (b) A ketone to form a hemiketal Formation of a hemiketal
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lecturenoteschap8-10-1slide - Carbohydrates- Chapter 8...

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