lecturenoteschap8-10-2slides

lecturenoteschap8-10-2slides - Carbohydrates- Chapter 8...

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1 Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins Carbohydrates * ____________ organic molecule on earth * _______________________________ (or yield these upon hydrolysis these upon hydrolysis) * __________: energy storage (glycogen, starch) metabolic intermediates (ATP, coenzymes) part of DNA & RNA structural elements in cell walls of bacteria, fungi & plants exoskeleton of arthropods extracellular matrix of animals cell-cell communication/signalling
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2 Individual monomeric units are called __________________ (CH 2 0)n where n 3 (contain 2 20 monosaccharides _________________ (contain 2-20 monosaccharides) ________________ (two linked monosaccharides) _____________________ (> 20 monosaccharides) pure mono- & disaccharides are water-soluble, colorless in solution & sweet colorless in solution & sweet ___________________________ : aldoses & ketoses ___________ : carbohydrate polymer ______________ : carbohydrate derivative where carbohydrate(s) are linked to a peptide, protein or lipid (i.e. proteoglycans , peptidoglycans , glycoproteins , glycolipids ) ___________ : study of role of glycans and glycoconjugates in living organisms
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3 ______________ : compounds with the same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of their atoms D & L sugars differ only in steric arrangement of atoms about central C. They are non- superimposable mirror images (i.e. _____________ ) They differ in orientation of the crystals in They differ in orientation of the crystals, in directions in which solutions rotate polarized light, and in selectivity of reaction with other asymmetric molecules Fig 8.1 Fischer projections of: (a) L- and D- glyceraldehyde, (b) dihydroxyacetone
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4 Fig 8.2 Stereo view of L- and D-glyceraldehyde (L) (D) (L) (D) N (# of Cs) Name Example 3 triose 4t e t r o s e 5p e n t o s e 6 hexose For sugars with >1 asymmetric (chiral) carbon, D & L refer to chiral C furthest from aldehyde (or ketone) & correspond to D & L glyceraldehyde n # of sterioisomers = 2 n where n = # of chiral C’s ______________ : sterioisomers that differ in configuration at only one chiral center
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5 Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins Fig. 8.3 Structure of the 3-6 carbon D-aldoses (blue are the most common) You must memorize the structures of all the sugars in blue!
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6 Fig. 8.3 ( aldoses continued) Fig 8.3 ( aldoses continued)
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7 Fig 8.5 Fisher projections of the 3 to 6 carbon D-ketoses (blue structures are most common) Fig. 8.5 ( ketoses continued)
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8 Fig 8.5 (ketoses continued) 8.2 Cyclization of Aldoses and Ketoses Fig. 8.6 Reaction of an alcohol with Formation of a hemiacetal an alcohol with: (a) An aldehyde to form a hemiacetal (b) A ketone to form a hemiketal Formation of a hemiketal
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9 Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections Modified monosaccharides
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lecturenoteschap8-10-2slides - Carbohydrates- Chapter 8...

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