lecturenoteschap8-10-4slides

lecturenoteschap8-10-4slides - Carbohydrates- Chapter 8...

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1 Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins Carbohydrates * ____________ organic molecule on earth * _______________________________ (or yield these upon hydrolysis) * __________: energy storage (glycogen, starch) metabolic intermediates (ATP, coenzymes) part of DNA & RNA structural elements in cell walls of bacteria, fungi & plants exoskeleton of arthropods extracellular matrix of animals cell-cell communication/signalling Individual monomeric units are called __________________ (CH 2 0)n where n 3 _________________ (contain 2-20 monosaccharides) ________________ (two linked monosaccharides) (> 20 monosaccharides _____________________ (> 20 monosaccharides) pure mono- & disaccharides are water-soluble, colorless in solution & sweet ___________________________ : aldoses & ketoses ___________ : carbohydrate polymer ______________ : carbohydrate derivative where carbohydrate(s) are linked to a peptide, protein or lipid (i.e. proteoglycans , peptidoglycans , glycoproteins , glycolipids ) ___________ : study of role of glycans and glycoconjugates in living organisms
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2 ______________ : compounds with the same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of their atoms D & L sugars differ only in steric arrangement of atoms about central C. They are non- superimposable mirror images (i.e. _____________ ) They differ in orientation of the crystals, in directions in which solutions rotate polarized light, and in selectivity of reaction with other asymmetric molecules Fig 8.1 Fischer projections of: (a) L- and D- glyceraldehyde, (b) dihydroxyacetone Fig 8.2 Stereo view of L- and D-glyceraldehyde (L) (D) (L) (D) N (# of Cs) Name Example 3t r i o s e 4t e t r o s e 5p e n t o s e 6 hexose For sugars with >1 asymmetric (chiral) carbon, D & L For sugars with >1 asymmetric (chiral) carbon, D & L refer to chiral C furthest from aldehyde (or ketone) & correspond to D & L glyceraldehyde # of sterioisomers = 2 n where n = # of chiral C’s ______________ : sterioisomers that differ in configuration at only one chiral center
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3 Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans Proteoglycans Glycoproteins Fig. 8.3 Structure of the 3-6 carbon D-aldoses (blue are the most common) You must memorize the structures of all the sugars in blue! Fig. 8.3 ( aldoses continued) Fig 8.3 ( aldoses continued)
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4 Fig 8.5 Fisher projections of the 3 to 6 carbon D-ketoses (blue structures are most common) Fig. 8.5 ( ketoses continued) Fig 8.5 (ketoses continued) 8.2 Cyclization of Aldoses and Ketoses Fig. 8.6 Reaction of an alcohol with: (a) An aldehyde to form a hemiacetal Formation of a hemiacetal (b) A ketone to form a hemiketal Formation of a hemiketal
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5 Carbohydrates- Chapter 8 Introduction and definition monosaccharides Aldoses and Ketoses Cyclic glycosyl residues, Haworth Projections Modified monosaccharides Glycosidic bond Disaccharides Polysaccharides Peptidoglycans
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lecturenoteschap8-10-4slides - Carbohydrates- Chapter 8...

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