lecturenoteschap9-10-2slides

lecturenoteschap9-10-2slides - BCMB 3100 - Chapter 9 Lipids...

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1 BCMB 3100 - Chapter 9 Lipids Definition Major classes Fatty acids Triacylglycerol Glycerophospholipids Sphingolipids Cholesterol ___________ : water insoluble organic compounds in living organisms Lipids are hydrophobic or amphipathic In BCMB3100 we will emphasize *phospholipids *glycolipids *cholesterol (steroid) _________________ : main lipids in most biological membranes _______________ : 2nd most abundant lipid in membranes (abundant in CNS) from animals and plants
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2 Fig 9.1 Structural relationships of major lipid classes Fig 9.2 Structure and nomenclature of fatty acids
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3 Table 9.1 * You must be able to draw the structure of those marked * * * * * * common name IUPAC name 18:0 stearate Octadecanoate 18:1 oleate cis- 9-Octadecenoate 18:2 linoleate cis,cis- 9,12-Octadecadienoate Unsaturated FA - at least one C-C double bond Saturated FA - no C-C double bonds Fig 9.3
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4 Fig 9.1 Structural relationships of major lipid classes Fig 9.5 Structure of a triacylglycerol (a) Glycerol backbone (b)Triacylglycerol (a) (b) ________________ are a neutral storage form of fatty acids
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5 MEMBRANE LIPIDS : 3 major types = phospholipids, glycolipids, & cholesterol _________________ : most abundant class of lipids in membranes (note: triacylglycerols most abundant on mass basis in mammals); derived from glycerol or sphingosine *lipids from glycerol = phosphoglycerides (also called glycerophospholipids ) * phosphoglycerides consist Fatty acid G L Y of glycerol backbone, two fatty acids & a phosphorylated alcohol Fatty acid C E R O L Phosphate alcohol Fatty acid chains (long aliphatic tails) in phospholipids & glycolipid contain even # of Fatty acids in biological organisms phospholipids & glycolipids contain even # of carbons (12-20) with 16 and 18 being most common Fatty acids can be ____________ or ______________ Under physiological conditions fatty acids are ionized (pKa 4.5-5.0)
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6 Fig 9.1 Structural relationships of major lipid classes Fig 9.7 (a) Glycerol 3-P and (b) phosphatidate Be sure to see Table 9.2, page 260
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7 Fig 9.7 Fig 9.8 Phospholipases hydrolyze phospholipids ___________ : enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of ti ll l triacylglycerols ______________ : catalyze hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids
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8 Fig 9.1 Structural relationships of major lipid classes Fig 9.10 (a) : (a) ____________ : structural backbone of sphingolipids (b) ___________ : sphingosine + fatty acid at C2 Ceramide
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9 Fig. 9.10 (continued) (c) Sphingomyelin : present in plasma membrane & myelin sheath around neurons Fig 9.11 Example of a Cerebroside: abundant in nerves Sugar -Sphingosine Fatty acid Structure of a galactocerebroside
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10 Fig 9.12 Example of a Ganglioside Ganglioside G M2 (NeuNAc in blue) Cell surface, cell-cell interactions (e.g. blood group antigens) Hexosaminidase A cleaves here Mutation Tay-Sachs disease Fig 9.1 Structural relationships of major lipid classes
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11 Fig 9.14 Structure of the steroid cholesterol. Steroids are polyprenyl compounds Synthesized from isoprene In eukaryotes but NOT in most prokaryotes Other steroids: steroid hormones (estrogen estradiol, testosterone, corticosteriods), bile salts, sterols in plants, yeast, fungi ____________ Ch l t l d l t th fl idit f Cholesterol modulates the fluidity of mammalian cell membranes It is also a precursor of the steroid hormones and bile salts
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course CHEM 3100 taught by Professor Dervartanian during the Fall '09 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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lecturenoteschap9-10-2slides - BCMB 3100 - Chapter 9 Lipids...

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