1BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22Translation•translation•Genetic code•tRNA•Amino acyl tRNA•Ribosomes•Initiation•Elongation•TerminationHow is the nucleotide code translated into a protein code?translationDNA RNA proteintranscription5’_____UCA_____3’NH2_____Ser_____COO-?????Adapter Molecule Hypothesis (Crick, 1958)mRNA protein(codon) adapter molecule = tRNAAdapter molecule = ___________(transfer RNA)(anticodon)______________:relation between the sequence of bases in RNA (DNA) and the sequence of amino acids in protein. It is a three base codethat is sequential, non-overlapping, and degenerate.BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22Translation•translation•Genetic code•tRNA•Amino acyl tRNA•Ribosomes•Initiation•Elongation•Termination
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2Fig 22.1 Overlapping vs nonoverlapping reading of the three-letter code*****NO!!!!!Fig 22.2Three reading frames of mRNA• Translation of the correct message requires selection of the correct reading frame Fig 22.3Standard genetic code****BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22Translation•translation•Genetic code•tRNA•Amino acyl tRNA•Ribosomes•Initiation•Elongation•Termination