lecturenoteschap22-10-4slides

lecturenoteschap22-10-4slides - BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22...

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1 BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22 Translation translation Genetic code tRNA Amino acyl tRNA Ribosomes Initiation Elongation Termination How is the nucleotide code translated into a protein code? translation DNA  RNA  protein transcription 5’_____ UCA _____3’  NH 2 _____ Ser _____COO - ????? Adapter Molecule Hypothesis (Crick, 1958) mRNA  protein (codon) adapter molecule = tRNA Adapter molecule = ___________ (transfer RNA) (anticodon (anticodon) ______________: relation between the sequence of bases in RNA (DNA) and the sequence of amino acids in protein. It is a three base code that is sequential, non- overlapping , and degenerate . BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22 Translation translation Genetic code tRNA 3 letter code 1 st proposed by George Gamow Amino acyl tRNA Ribosomes Initiation Elongation Termination 2 letter RNA code: 4 2 = 16 3 letter RNA code: 4 3 = 64 4 letter RNA code: 4 4 = 254
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2 Fig 22.1 Overlapping vs nonoverlapping reading of the three-letter code NO!!!!! ***** Fig 22.2 Three reading frames of mRNA • Translation of the correct message requires selection of the correct reading frame Fig 22.3 Standard genetic code ** * * BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22 Translation translation Genetic code tRNA Amino acyl tRNA Ribosomes Initiation Elongation Termination
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3 Fig. 22.4 • Cloverleaf structure of tRNA tRNAs 73-95 nucleotides long. Place where amino acid will be added Ψ = pseudouridylate D =dihydrouridylate Anticodon base pairs with codon in mRNA. 3’ end always ends in 3’ACC…….5’ Amino acid is added to A at 3’ end Fig 22.5 Tertiary structure of tRNA (see also Fig. 22.6) BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22 Translation translation Genetic code tRNA Amino acyl tRNA Ribosomes Initiation Elongation Termination Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases • synthesize ________________ (specific amino acid covalently attached to 3’ end of specific tRNA (named as: alanyl-tRNA Ala ) • At least 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (1 per amino acid) (1 per amino acid) • Each synthetase specific for a particular amino acid, but may recognize isoacceptor tRNAs • Synonymous codons may be recognized by isoacceptor tRNAs (different tRNAs that attach the same amino acid) (bacteria have 30-60 different tRNAs)
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4 Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Reaction
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lecturenoteschap22-10-4slides - BCMB 3100 - Chapter 22...

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