first_lecture - NPRE 442. Radioactive Waste Management...

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1 NPRE 442. Radioactive Waste Management Prof. W. R. Roy “He had no idea of the journey we were about to take.” —Henry Lawson in “Journey to the Center of the Earth” by Jules Verne. Nuclear energy in the past In the 1950s, “atomic energy” was regarded as the key to the future. 1957. First large-scale power plant in PA. 1959. Dresden-1 Nuclear Power plant (Illinois) run by Commonwealth Edison.
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2 Atomic energy for youth
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3 But, in the decades that followed. . . Economic difficulties. Widespread public fear. Three Mile Island accident in 1979. Chernobyl in 1986. “radiophobia”
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4 The future of nuclear energy Since the late 1980s, there has been a defacto moratorium on building new nuclear power plants in the US. Until now . . . In about 2000, the concept of global warming was gaining acceptance. Is global warming real? Warmest 12 years: 1998,2005,2003,2002,2004,2006 , 2001,1997,1995,1999,1990,2000
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5 The concentration of CO 2 is increasing Greenhouse gases warm the earth
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6 To reduce the emissions of green house gases by fossil fuels. . . Many advocate greater use of alternative sources of energy: Wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, wave energy, solar, and Nuclear! Yes, nuclear is considered by some as a “ green energy source ” because it does not contribute to global warming.
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7 There is nuclear energy renaissance . . . The NRC has received 17 applications for 25 new reactors as of December, 2009. First one arrived Oct. 2007. New power plants are at various planning stages, but Federal loan guarantees need to be finalized. TVA may be first with a plant re-start. At present China and India have taken the lead. Energy Policy Act of 2005 The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is an attempt to combat growing energy problems, by providing tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types which includes nuclear energy. But it also includes fossils fuels, wind, and alternative energy.
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8 Location of Projected New Nuclear Power Reactors Argonne's Mark Peters discusses the future of nuclear energy on Chicago Public Radio http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center /News/2007/news070329.html
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9 But what about radioactive wastes?
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Radioactive Decay and Measurement A curie (Ci) is 3.7 x 10 10 disintegrations per second. A pico is 10 -12 pCi/L and pCi/g are often used in radiochemical/radiological studies . The SI unit (International System of Units) of radioactivity is the becquerel (Bq). One Bq is 1.0 disintegration per second. One pCi = 0.037 Bq. Radioactive Decay and measurement Ionizing radiation removes electrons from atoms when it passes through any material. Energy lost during the reaction is absorbed by the material, and is called the absorbed dose with units of the rad (radiation absorbed dose) or the SI unit Grays (Gy). One Gy = 100 rads. A rad is defined as a
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first_lecture - NPRE 442. Radioactive Waste Management...

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