third_lecture - Radioactive Waste Regulators, Toxicity, and...

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1 Radioactive Waste Regulators, Toxicity, and Health “During the whole of the next day we proceeded on our journey through this interminable gallery, arch after arch, tunnel after tunnel.” —Henry Lawson in “Journey to the Center of the Earth” by Jules Verne. Radioactive Waste Regulators Who’s in Charge? US Nuclear Regulatory Commission ( http://www.nrc.gov/ ) *Issues licenses *Enforces standards Dr. Dale Klein, Chairman *Regulates possession, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes
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2 Radioactive Waste Regulators US Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/radiationandr adioactivity.html *Provides radiation protection standards *Risk assessments of radionuclides in soil, water, air, and food *NCR regulates wastes disposal using EPA criteria Radioactive Waste Regulators US Department of Energy *Conducts research and development for waste disposal *Assists LLRW disposal programs *Manages defense-related (transuranic) wastes *Slated to manage HLW sites when and if they open *Plans to manage surplus Pu U.S. Department of Transportation *Regulates the transport of wastes
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3 In Illinois (in addition to NRC, EPA, DOE, and DOT) Division of Nuclear Safety of the Illinois Emergency Management Agency “The nation’s most comprehensive monitoring system for the 11 operating nuclear power reactors in Illinois. Inspection and escort of spent nuclear fuel shipments.”
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4 The Illinois EPA “Illinois EPA is charged with protecting the groundwater” “Illinois EPA has been made aware of tritium leaking into groundwater from spills at several nuclear power generating plants in the state – at Byron, Dresden and Braidwood.” Radioactive Wastes and Health Acute radiation symptoms Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, coma, and then death Gamma Radiation Erythema (skin redness) Ulceration (skin sores than heal slowly if at all) Tissue necrosis (dead skin)
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5 Uranium and Health Issues Uranium is found everywhere in small amounts, You always take it into your body from the air, water, food, and soil. Food and water have small amounts of natural uranium in them. People eat about 1 to 2 micrograms (0.6 to1.0 picocuries) of natural uranium every day with their food (see handout). Uranium and Health Issues People take in about 1.5 micrograms (0.8 picocuries) of natural uranium for every liter of water they drink (see handout). We also consume the daughter-decay products:
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6 Uranium and Health Issues Uranium and daughter products in water 238 U 234 U 230 Th 226 Ra 222 Rn . . . 232 Th 228 Ra 228 Th 224 Ra 220 Rn . . . Most occur in the pCi/L-level (see handouts) Back to U—what happens next? Uranium and Health Issues Absorption of U from the intestinal tract may range from <0.2% to 2 to 3%. The rest of the U leaves the body in feces.
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course NPRE 442 taught by Professor Stubbins during the Fall '08 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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third_lecture - Radioactive Waste Regulators, Toxicity, and...

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