Geoffrey reference to Geoffrey de Vinsauf, an author on the use of rhetoric during the twelfth century. greyn This word in Chaucer's time carried many meanings, such as a grain of corn, a grain of paradise, and, most important, a pearl. Throughout medieval literature, the pearl takes on heavy significance; it can represent purity, chastity, innocence, and other related virtues. Hasdrubal the king of Carthage when it was destroyed by the Romans. His wife screamed so loudly that all of Carthage heard her, and she died by throwing herself upon Hasdrubal's funeral pyre. The comparison to Lady Pertelote is apropos. humors (humours) in Chaucer's time and well into the Renaissance, "humors" were the elemental fluids of the body — blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile — that regulated a person's physical health and mental disposition. ignotum per ignotius
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