as if all of the charge were located at its center. 2. A charged particle inside of a shell of uniformcharge does not experience any net force from the shell. 3. Any excess charge placed on a sphericalconductor will rearrange itself until it is uniformly distributed on the outside of the conductor.The first two properties are exactly analogous to a spherical shell of uniform mass, while the lastone has no gravitational analogy because there is no gravitational analogue to a conductor.2.3Quantization and Conservation of ChargeIn Benjamin Franklin’s day, electric charge was thought to be a continuous fluid, but it has sincebeen observed that charge is quantized. That is to say, charge comes in (albeit small) indivisiblepackages. The elementary charge given in Coulombs is:e= 1.602×10-19CThis fundamental unit of charge is the charge which is carried by the electron and the proton. Theelectron has negative one elementary charge while the proton has positive one elementary charge.
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