Chapter 1 - BIO211 Test 1 Study Notes Chapter 1 Earth is...

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Chapter 1 Earth is special, it has large enough mass to retain life-supporting fluids through gravitational attraction. Therefore, it can be mantled by an ocean ad an atmosphere and it can hold water in lakes, rivers and soil. At the same time earth is small enough that its gravity does not attract many giant meteorites from space (ie. Many massive meteorites have hit Jupiter whose mass is 318 times the size of earth, these impacts would have repeatedly devastated life on Jupiter if it was there) The Principle of Actualism - actualism, the basic tenant of science in general, and it applies on all time scales. Thus, a physicist who performs a lab experiment on a given day assumes that an identical experiement the next day – or 10 or 100 years later - will yield the same result The nature and Origin of Rocks - Rocks consist of interlocking or bonded grains of matter, which are typically composed of single minerals - a Mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid element or compound with a particular chemical composition or range of compositions and a characteristic internal structure (most rocks are formed of two or more minerals) - rocky surfaces that stand exposed and are readily accessible for study are generally designated as outcrops or exposures Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks can form from one another - three basic types of rock: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic - igneous rock form by cooling of molten material to the point at which it hardens or crystallizes (much as ice forms when water freezes) they are composed of bounded grains, each consisting of a particular mineral (ie. Granite) - magma , which turns into igneous rock comes from great depths within earth, where temperatures are very high - This material may reach earth’s surface through cracks in the crust and then cool to from extrusive , or volcanic igneous rock, or it may cool and harden within earth to form intrusive igneous rock - Weathering is a collective term for the chemical and physical processes that break down rocks of any kind at Earth’s surface. Two types of weathering: physical weathering (the mechanical fragmentation of rock without chemical alteration) and chemical weathering (minerals in rock are altered to other minerals or dissolved away) - Sediment is material deposited on Earth’s surface by water, ice, or air – or by gravitational transport down a slope. Grains of sediment accumulate in a variety of settings, ranging from surfaces of desert dunes to river channels, lake bottoms, sandy beaches, etc. -
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Chapter 1 - BIO211 Test 1 Study Notes Chapter 1 Earth is...

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