BIO211 Chapter 2 - BIO211 September 24th,2011 Ben Liu...

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Ben Liu BIO211 September 24 th ,2011 BIO211 – Chapter 2 Rock-Forming Minerals and Rocks Rocks provide evidence of conditions and events of the geologic past o Building blocks of the earth, telling stories of mountain building episodes, change of climates and changing the positions of land. Structures of Minerals : o Naturally occurring solid elements or compounds, which are derived from the nature of atoms (that is, their atomic weight and charge) Centre of the atom is the nucleus and are composed of protons and neutrons that have the same mass of one atomic mass unit. Electrons orbit along the shell of the atom. o Isotopes are the same element that as different atomic weights (carbon 12, carbon 13, carbon 14), and they have special importance in geology. Some are radioactive (carbon 12) and nonradioactive (carbon 13, carbon 14) By measuring the amount of decay of isotopes, geologist can detect the age of the rocks. Chemical reactions produce minerals: o Chemical reactions is the foundation of forming elements Two or more atoms interact to form a structure called molecule Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride (NaCl) (salt we use in food) o Occurs in nature as Halite Chemical reactions create chemical bonds: o Molecules form through chemical reactions in which interactions between electrons produce attachments between atom known as chemical bond Ionic bonds occur when one atom loses an electron to another atom. Atom with the smaller number of electrons on the outer shell, it’ll attach to the other atom. (Sodium has on electron on the outer shell, and it attaches to chlorine’s outer shell with 7 other electrons)
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Ben Liu BIO211 September 24 th ,2011 When an atom is charged, it becomes an ion. (Na + / Cl - ) Carbonate (CO 3 2- ) Grouped ions are called complex ions Covalent bonds are when atoms share electrons rather than exchange. Diamonds are in covalent bonds
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course BIO 211 taught by Professor Jessica during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

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BIO211 Chapter 2 - BIO211 September 24th,2011 Ben Liu...

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