Anthropology #8 - Anthropology- Lecture #8 (Oct 29/09) -...

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Anthropology- Lecture #8 (Oct 29/09) - Principles of Evolution - The Modern Synthesis of Evolution o Focuses on how evolution works at level f phenotypes, genes and populations o Microevolution o Macroevolution o DNA RNA Protein - Genetics o Somatic Cells: most ells in body (except sex cells_ o Gametes: Sex cells (Sperm and ovum egg) o Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles o Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes - Chromosomes o Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from generations to generation - DNA o Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic info that codes for the synthesis of proteins o Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) - RNA Molecules o Ribonucleic acid o Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide range of functions in body o Regulate expression of other genes o Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of proteins o Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteins o Does all the work (working molecules) - Proteins o Linear sequence of amino acids that are building blocks of the cells o Each protein has specific function determined by “blueprint” stored in DNA o E.g. catalysis of a biochemical reactions id done by enzymes, which contain protein (digestion); and many more o Hemoglobin transports oxygen - Transcription o Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA: messenger RNA) at unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template o Result: genetic info encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA o mRNA carries info into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation - Codons o Genetic info encoded in sequence of 3 nuciotides termed codons o Four nucleotides of RNA are: adenine (a), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U) which replaces thymine (T) in DNA template
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o Please note typo on pg 27 of book: “Thus, a nucieotide sequence of AATTGC on one side of
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course ANT 100 taught by Professor Uoftstgeorge during the Fall '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Anthropology #8 - Anthropology- Lecture #8 (Oct 29/09) -...

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