Anthropology #17 - Anthropology- Lecture #17 (Mar 18/10) -...

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- What is Society? - Malinowski’s Functionalism 1) Human beings have biological needs 2) Culture satisfies needs via institutions 3) Institutions create second order needs (culture) 4) Culture satisfies these needs via more institutions - Radcliffe- Brown’s Functionalism 1) Institution X is done for Y 2) Institution X has an effect Z 3) Z is beneficial to society W 4) Since X is part of W, X is reproduced o Institutions may have direct functions but also latent ones (have side effects that might be beneficial to an institution) - Criticisms of theories: o They treat society as if it’s a homeostatic system (system in equilibrium= steady state) o Treats institutions as being only functional to societies (when in fact some are dysfunctional) o Treat societies as being bounded o These assumptions are ethnocentric - How is society held together? - Solidarity o Emile Durkheim: Mechanical solidarity The form of solidarity that obtains to small scale societies (use to be called primitive societies) Think of it as a village: each member of village gets up in the morning and each performs the same types of tasks, rituals, share a sense of morality, religion, set of values, and the form of labour they are involved in is not really much different from one another Sometimes find that it exist and persist in some state societies Organic solidarity Every village society have a differentiate type of labour (often separated by genders) Pertains to modern societies Specialization of tasks (especially in production process) The metaphor for this type of society is a metaphor of a body (e.g. lungs performing certain function, while the stomach has a different function but all the functions put together is necessary as a whole) - The state o Benedict Anderson:
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course ANT 100 taught by Professor Uoftstgeorge during the Fall '09 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Anthropology #17 - Anthropology- Lecture #17 (Mar 18/10) -...

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