Geo #2 - Environment, Food and People- Lecture #2 (Sept...

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Environment, Food and People- Lecture #2 (Sept 22/09) - Population change: Pre Agricultural Societies o Hunting/gathering -Lack of food availability - Lack of food supply, couldn’t support the population growth o Variation in availability of food - Change in what they ate depending on the seasons o Mobile population - Have problems sustaining growth - Simple social structures o Consequences - Population: Agricultural Societies: o Agricultural Revolution o Increased Dependability of food - Control over food supply, stimulates population growth - Priest had the ability to predict the weather, rainfall, which is important of the production of food o Consequences (settled population, population growth, social organization) o Continual problems - Problems controlling diseases (especially to their plants and animals) - Industrial Societies o Second agricultural revolution - Start of GM foods - Started to produce more crop rotations which is good for the soil and it means more variety of foods - Machines helped the speed of the cycle of harvesting, planting etc o Industrial revolutions (energy) - Harvesting of power/energy - Steam to boil thing, combustion engine - Increase level of production, which facilitates more and more food, which then leads to population growth o Transport revolutions (Geography) - Increases food availability (links sources of productions) - Introduction of shipping - A lot of foods aren’t from Canada nowadays o Scientific revolutions (disease control) - Most diseases from animal population - Allows it to control disease, which controls the population hugely o Social/cultural changes o Consequences (growth to stability) - Population Indices o Crude Birth Rates (CBR) o Crude Death Rates (CDR) (Both per 1 000 of population) o Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) (Expressed as a percentage) o Doubling time (70 divided by RNI) - Achieving Population Change o Demographic Transition Model
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(Stage one: birth/death rate is high-cancel each other out) (Stage two: death rate starts to decline, and birth rate remains high) (Stage three: birth rate starts to fall off) (Stage four: population decline because low birth/death rates) - From pre to post industrial society - Alteration in CBR, CDR, RNI - Population: Current Issues o Geographic patterns o Birth rates-type of economy, role of children, role of woman, culture, population structure - Undeveloped countries have a higher birth rate - Societies that are more commercialized have lower birth rates - Children needed for labour supply and to support their parents - Children work at a very young age - In our society, having kids are really costly (e.g. clothes, house) - We have kids for an emotional connection - Increasing level of equality and more opportunities for woman o Death rates- type of economy, levels of poverty, health and welfare, population structure - More old people, means higher death rate - Population Concerns - Population and Food Supply o Malthus (problem is that he didn’t recognize why people wanted kids-he thought we did just
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course GEOGRAPHY Env food n taught by Professor during the Fall '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Geo #2 - Environment, Food and People- Lecture #2 (Sept...

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