GGR124 - Term 2 - Exam Review - Transportation - Edge...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Transportation - Edge Cities (Garreu): Cities where the central city downtown is virtually irrelevant for most purposes. Edge cities are suburban areas whose land uses have been segregated into single-use areas such as parks, shopping centres, and residential developments located outside of the central business district . As a result, significant increase in the amount of travel required to accomplish a task has led to a dependence on the car , and fundamentally, edge cities revolve around accessibility made possible by the car. The effects it has on the city as a whole include an increase in urban area size , most significantly seen in spatial area, as well as population. They contain essential functions of a city, because of the combination of office space, retail, and residential development concentrated in such close proximity to one another . Some argue it contributes to formless sprawl, and is not an efficient way to maintain sustainable growth. - Issues with Transportation: Public transportation isn’t always efficient, as it is often concentrated at particular times, and the lack of investment has led to insufficient carrying capacity and slow service during off peak hours. As a result, automobile ownership is becoming less and less of a choice, it is becoming more essential. For urban planners and policy makers, it means introducing innovative provisions such as England’s congestion charge, which has led to positive results such as more bicycles and public transit being used, funds raised for public transit, and a 30% decrease in downtown congestion. Environmental impacts are obvious, and calls for policy makers and planners in the U.S. to introduce the requirement that a percentage of all new automobiles must be hybrid or electric. Parking becomes an issue, with inner-city accommodations requiring the “retrofitting” of existing buildings in older downtowns, which can be difficult. - Transportation Systems Management System that seeks to increase carrying capacity of existing traffic routes, with approaches being easy to implement, fairly low cost, and involving minor physical change in network. Traffic management systems: information technology, road pricing, auto restraint (parking zone system, building bus lanes, two-person lanes, speed bumps), car pooling. Housing This is used to explain changes in housing occupancy over time. New homes occupied by the affluent, meant freed up older homes for those on moderate incomes, leaving their homes for the poor and lowest income. Thus, housing filters down to lower incomes. In the 1920s, sociologists explained inner-city concentration of immigrants was due to the fact that they occupied housing
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course GEOGRAPHY Urbanizati taught by Professor St.georgecampus during the Fall '09 term at University of Toronto.

Page1 / 4

GGR124 - Term 2 - Exam Review - Transportation - Edge...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online