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Unformatted text preview: Developmental Psychology • Developmental Psychology: branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span • 3 Major Issues: o Nature/Nurture (how genetics influences our behavior o Continuity/Stages (gradual continuous process o Stability/Change (do we become diff . people as we age?) Module 13: Prenatal Development and the Newborn Conception • Single sperm cell (male) penetrates outer coating of egg (female) and fuses to form a fertilized cell Prenatal Development • Zygote: fertilized egg cell; cells divided rapidly for first 2 weeks after conception and begin to differentiate • Embryo: developing human organism from 2 – 9 weeks after conception; cells differentiate • Fetus: developing human organisms from 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogens • Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and virusis, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm o Examples: o HIV, heroin, smoke, alcohol • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking The Competent Newborn • Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulations o 4 month olds showed habituation to a series of cat pictures and looked longer at the novel dog stimulus • Newborns prefer human faces Module 14: Infancy and Childhood Physical and Motor Development • Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience Physical Development: Maturation and Memory • Infants can form memories, but they don’t last • Average age of earliest lasting memory: • Examples: o Moving o 3rd or 4th birthday party Cognitive Development: Schemas • Schema: a conceptual framework that organizes and interprets info • Assimilation: interpreting our new experience in terms of out existing schemas • Accommodation: adapting our current schemas to incorporate new info Cognitive Development: Object Permanence & Representational Thought • Object Permanence: a child’s realization that an object exists even when he/she cannot see or touch it • Representational Thought: the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his/her mind Cognitive Development: Principle of Conservation • Conservation: the principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changes Cognitive Development: Egocentrism •...
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