26-30 MODULES - IntroductiontoPsychology:Memory...

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Introduction to Psychology: Memory Module 26: Introduction to Memory The Phenomenon of Memory Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Information-Processing Models (3 STEP PROCESS) Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system Storage: the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage Information-Processing Model: Connectionism Three stages: 1. Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system   (ex: remembering the last few words someone said) 2. Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten (ex: remember a phone number long enough to dial it) 3. Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system (ex: websites and numbers that you visit and call all the time) Limitless in storage Information-Processing Model: Updates Some info goes directly to long-term memory Working memory: conscious, active processing of incoming information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory Module 27: Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode Automatic Processing Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, and of well-learned information
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Includes: o Space – we automatically form memories about where things are o Time – we automatically form memories about when we did particular things o Frequency – we don’t count the number of things that happen in a day (hearing a particular word multiple times in a day) o Well-learned information Effortful Processing Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort o Some things, such as studying, can only be learned using effortful processing Effortful Processing Rehearsal: conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage Spacing effect: tendency for distributed practice to yield better long- term retention than is achieved through massed practice Serial position effect: tendency to recall best the last and first terms in a list o Recency effect: remembering the last word heard
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 1202 taught by Professor Gregg during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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26-30 MODULES - IntroductiontoPsychology:Memory...

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