31-35 MODULES - Anagram BARGE GRABE PSYC 2000 Week 9...

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NIGNTIOCO Anagram BARGE GRABE ENTRY ETYRN WATER WREAT Mental age _ X 100 Chronological Age Reliable Not Valid Reliable Valid PSYC 2000 Week 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Module 31: Thinking Thinking Cognition: the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating *Cognitive psychologists are concerned with things that go on inside the mind Concepts Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people o Ex: If you don’t understand the concept of a ball, you would have difficulty explaining something relating to a ball. Prototype: a mental image of best example of a category o Ex: When you think about a mammal, you think of a dog or human. You don’t think of a whale. The dog or human is a prototype of a mammal. Solving Problems Algorithm: methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem o Ex: Unscrambling this word. Heuristic: simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; faster, but more error-prone o Ex: we might eliminate all combinations words with “II” combinations. However, Hawaii has two I’s. Insight: sudden, often novel realization of the solution to a problem o Ex: Staring at the word until it comes to you. Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation Bias: tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and ignore contradictory evidence Obstacles to Problem Solving Fixation: inability to see a problem from a new perspective o Mental Set: tendency to approach a problem in one particular way Ex: what’s worked for us in the past. When asked to draw a flying horse, most people draw a horse with wings. However, some people draw horses with jet packs. o Functional Fixedness: tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions Ex: Instead of using salt to season food, you use it to kill a slug. Bank Teller or Feminist? Linda is a 31-year-old woman who is single. She is considered outspoken and very bright. She majored in philosophy on college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and social issues. She participated in several demonstrations. (Paraphrased from “Social Psychology” by David Meyers) Statistically, she is more than likely a bank teller. There are statistically more bank tellers than there are people involved in the feminist movement. 1
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PSYC 2000 Week 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Decisions and Judgments - Heuristics Representativeness Heuristic: judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular stereotypes o Ex: Linda was described as someone who would be involved in the feminist movement. Availability Heuristic:
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 1202 taught by Professor Gregg during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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31-35 MODULES - Anagram BARGE GRABE PSYC 2000 Week 9...

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