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Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter 46 Concept 46.1: Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction Asexual -Creation of individuals whose genes come from a single parent without the fusion of egg and sperm. Sexual -The creation of offspring by the fusion of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote List and describe four mechanisms of asexual reproduction 1. Fission-the separation of a parent into two individuals of equal size. 2. Budding-ne individuals arise from outgrowths of original ones 3. Fragmentation-The breaking of the body into several pieces which become offspring Define parthenogenesis and describe the conditions that favor its occurrence. Note examples of invertebrate and vertebrate species that use this form of reproduction. Parthenegenesis is the process of an egg develops without being fertilized - The crustacean daphnia - Bees, wasps, ants (male honeybees) - Fishes, amphibians, lizards (whip tail) Explain how hermaphroditism may be advantageous in sessile or burrowing animals that have difficulty encountering a member of the opposite sex. Hemaphroditism is advantageous in these situations because it makes every individual a potential mate. Concept 46.2: Fertilization depends on mechanisms that help sperm meet eggs of the same species Describe mechanisms that increase the probability that mature sperm will encounter fertile eggs of the same species in organisms that use external fertilization External fertilized organisms do it in a moist habitat so that the sperm can swim to the eggs. Eggs and sperm may be released at the same temperature or date Courtship behavior helps Compare reproductive systems using internal and external fertilization on the basis of the relative number of zygotes and protection of embryos
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