Test 1 Notes (Good)

Test 1 Notes (Good) - 1 Scarri5@lsu.eduDecent with...

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1 Scarri5@lsu.eduDecent with Modification A Darwin view of life 1/16/07 Chapter 22 -The theory of evolution is a valid scientific theory supported by evidence. What is evolution and adaptation? Two main ideas for evolution: 1. Change over time of the genetic composition of a population 2. Decent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting organisms. Evolutionary adaptation -Accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organism’s ability to survive in specific environments. Evolution in a historical context -Figure 22.2 Catastrophism, Gradualism, and Uniformatarianism -Cuvier -Catastrophism -Catastrophies caused extinct species and strata -Where were fossils of species that are around today? -Hutton and Lyell -Gradualism and Uniformitarianism -slow natural forces (wind, water, earthquakes, volcanoes) caused stratification of rock
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2 -Observations of geological formations and rates processes occur = Earth at least millions of years old. Figure 22.3 Pre-Darwinian Theory of Evolution -Lamarck -Inheritance of Acquired characteristics -Bodies of living organisms are modified through the use or disuse of parts -These modifications are inherited by offspring -This idea turned out to be wrong Evolution by natural selection -Darwin and Wallace developed the theory independently -Darwin-voyage of the beagle -Wallace-naturalist in Indonesia Darwin’s focus on Adaptation Figure 22.6
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3 Decent with Modification Figure 22.7
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4 Natural Selection -the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces, resulting in the presentation of favorable adaptations -Process “selects” from what is available in the gene pool. -New characteristics are not created on demand. Mechanism behind natural selection Pg. 444 Artificial Selection -Selective breeding of organisms to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits -Analogous to natural selction Figure 22.10
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5 Darwins theory Explains a wide variety of observations Examples of Natural Selection Figure 22.12
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6 1/18/07 Natural Selection and HIV Resistance Figure 22.13
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7 Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3tc, a patients HIV population consists entirely of 3tc-resistant viruses. How can this best be explained? -A few drug resistant viruses were present at the start if treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency Homologous and Analogous Structures -Homologous structures -May differ in function, but it have a similar anatomy -Analogous structures -Have similar functions and superficially similar appearance, but different anatomies (convergent evolution) Homologous Structures: Mammalian Forelimbs Figure 22.14
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8 Homologous Structures Vertebrate Embryos Figure 22.15
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9 -All vertebrates share similar development genes -Differences arise by some genes being expressed differently Homologous Structures: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology -DNA is universal genetic material -All life forms use approximately the same 20 amino acids to make proteins -All use ATP as the primary form of cellular energy -All use RNA and ribosomes to make protein
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Test 1 Notes (Good) - 1 Scarri5@lsu.eduDecent with...

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