Test 1 Notes

Test 1 Notes - I. How are genes and proteins related? a....

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I. How are genes and proteins related? a. Gene RNA to make protein b. One gene, one protein c. How do we go from genes to physical structure? d. Genes determine protein structure e. Protein structure determines the way the processes of life are carried out f. Codons in RNA g. Body needs proteins for enzymes and energy to maintain homeostasis (to stay alive). h. DNA and RNA are proteins i. Transcription produces RNA i. mRNA ii. tRNA iii. rRNA j. Gene: segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome k. DNA codes for specific Amino Acid sequence in a protein or for the RNA that helps make proteins l. What life forms use DNA as genetic material? All II. DNA vs. RNA (Table 10.1) a. DNA i. Double stranded ii. Deoxyribose b. RNA i. Single stranded ii. Ribose c. Three types of RNA i. rRNA 1. contains large ribosomal subunit and small subunit of ribosomal RNA 2. highly conserved sequences (within species very little variation in RNA strand) ii. tRNA 1. catalytic site 2. tRNA docking sites 3. anticodon 4. attached amino acid III.Information Flow in the Cell (Figure 10.3) a. DNA RNA Protein b. DNA RNA= transcription c. Nucleotide sequence amino acid = translation s IV.How is information in a gene transcribed into RNA? a. Initiation b. Elongation c. Termination d. RNA V. How is the Sequence of mRNA molecule translated into protein? a. Language barrier i. Nucleic Acids 1. DNA – 4 nucleotides 2. RNA – 4 nucleotides
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ii. Proteins – 20 amino acids b. Genetic Code i. Codon: start AUG (methayanine) 1. Triplet of nucleotides 2. Codes for one specific amino acid ii. Genetic Code Table: First base, second base, third base start codon…chart VI.Experiment: Deciphering the Genetic Code a. Artificial mRNA: AAA, UUU, CCC, GGG b. Resulting amino acids: Lysine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Glycine VII. Translation a. Occurs in the ribosomes (located in the Rough ER) b. Aka Protein synthesis c. Requirements: 3 steps (initiation, elongation, termination) i. Amino acids tied to tRNAs ii. Small and large ribosomal subunits iii. ATP for energy
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 1202 taught by Professor Gregg during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Test 1 Notes - I. How are genes and proteins related? a....

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