Test 3 Notes #2

Test 3 Notes #2 - 18:12 H1N1 Otherbiologicalentities...

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18:12 H1N1 Other biological entities Non organisms Viruses Viroids o Even simpler and smaller than viruses o Fragments of single-stranded RNA with NO protein coat o Hijack cells; infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes,  avocados o Prions-      unusual infectious particles Protein particle with NO GENETIC MATERIAL (i.e. DNA or RNA) Mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru Prions consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes other  proteins fold wrong Origin? Developed as a by-product of living organisms Bio remediation- living organisms make better; clean up toxic waste and other  dangerous hazards. Deinococcus radiodurans o Survive 3000x more radiation than humans o Tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold o Used to “chew up” toxic waste
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o Exxon-Valdez oil spill o “Super bacterium” Prokaryotes: BACTERIA and ARCHEA Domains 8000 species described, may be 100-1000x that number 1 st  organisms to appear on Earth, 3.5 billion years ago. Characteristics: o Cell wall= semi-rigid, permeable, made3 of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate  with amino acids attached). Gives bacteria shapes. Shapes: bacilli, cocci, spirilla Cocci- spherical Bacilli- rod shaped Spirilla- spiral o Capsule= highly organized, formly attached to cell wall o Slime layer= less organized, loosely attached to cell wall o Pili= hairlike structures on surface of bacteri which aid in attachment o Rotating flagella o Endospore= protective “resting” structures, bacteria surrounded by durable  cell wall. Resistant to extreme conditions. o Reproduction Asexual in the form of binary fission Sexual in the form of conjugation using plasmids o Energy sources- make their own energies in many many ways
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Autotrophs using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis Heterotrophs including symbiotes o Diseases: Gonorrhea, syphilis, Tuberculosis, Lyme disease o Antibiotic resistance Gram- positive: peptidoglycan traps crystal violet. o One plasma membrane and a thich peptidoglycan layer o Dye is stuck inside the cell Gram –negative: crystal violet is easily rinsed away, revealing red dye o Two membranes and a much thinner peptidoglycan layer Archaea Vs. Bacteria Similar to bacteria in many respects o Single-celled  o Prokaryotes o Small size Different in their o Cell membrane lipids structure o Cell wall composition Eg no peptidoglycan in their cell walls rRNA subunit sequences Archaea No known pathogens Find them in very extreme environments (extremophiles)  Even so, archaea are not restricted to extreme habitats Archaea account for 20-3-% of marine microbial cells 
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18:12 What is the biggest organisms?
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This note was uploaded on 05/12/2011 for the course BIOL 1202 taught by Professor Gregg during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Test 3 Notes #2 - 18:12 H1N1 Otherbiologicalentities...

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