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Unformatted text preview: Test 4 Page 1 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Concept 35.1: The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues and cells The three basic plant organs o Plants draw nutrients from two very different environments: Below ground and above ground o 3 basic organs Roots Stems Leaves o Organized into roots and shoots system o Figure 35.2 o Roots An organ that anchors the vascular plant Absorbs minerals and water Absorption occurs near root tips Root hairs increase the surface area of the root, they are a single elongated cell Stores organic nutrients Modified roots Can take on different shapes for different function Maize- prop roots Sweet potatoes- storage roots for starches Strangler fig- aerial roots, starts in tree Pneumatophores- swamps have anoxic mud Lateral roots- taproot systems of eudicots and gymnosperms o Stems Consists of Nodes-points at which leaves and nodes are attached Internodes- segment between nodes Axillary buds- potential to form lateral shoot (ie branch) in angle of branch and stem Terminal bud- located on shoot tip, cases elongation of young shoot Modified stems Runners Stolens Rhizomes o Leaves The main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants Consists of: Flattened blade The petiole, which joins the leaf to the node of the stem Test 4 Page 2 Simple vs. Compound Leaves Simple leaf: a single undivided blade Some may have deep lobes Compound leaf: blade consists of multiple leaflets Doubly compound leaf: each leaf in divided into smaller leaflets Veins Monocots have parallel major veins that run the length of the blade Eudicots are branched Modified Leaves Tendrils: lasso supporting structures, vine like Spines: serve for protection, cactus leaves Storage: succulent plants have leaves that store water Bracts: attract pollinators colored leaves of hibiscus Reproduction o The three vascular tissue systems: Dermal, vascular, Ground Dermal: consists of Epidermis- single layer of tightly packed cells Periderm- in woody plants, these tightly packed protective tissues replace epidermis in stem and root Vascular: carries out transport of materials between roots and shoots Xylem: conveys water and minerals up from roots Phloem: transports organic nutrients from sources to sinks (places of growth) The vascular tissue of a root or stem is collectively called the stele Vascular cylinder-stele of the root Vascular bundles-stele of stems and leaves Ground tissue various functions include storage, photosyntesis and support...
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