Anitori_Ch_1_and_Ch_10 - Chapter 1 Study Guide The...

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Chapter 1 Study Guide —The Microbial World and You 1. What is a microbe/microorganism? 2. What is meant by the term pathogenic? Are most microorganisms pathogenic? 3. Know the beneficial role of microbes in: recycling of nutrients within ecosystems, organic decomposition, sewage treatment, bioremediation, food and beverage production, antibiotic production, as pesticides, genetic engineering. 4. What are the normal microbiota? Where are they normally found? Where should they not be found? 5. For each of the following historical events, know (1) what scientist(s) was (were) involved in the discovery/advancement; (2) when was the discovery/advancement made; (3) why the discovery/advancement was important. a. First visual observations of living microorganisms. b. First vaccine in Western Medicine. c. Development of the idea that hand washing is important for doctors. d. Discovery of the process of fermentation. e. Disproof of the theory of spontaneous generation and experimental support for the theory of biogenesis. f. Development of the basic ideas of aseptic technique. g. Development of the process of pasteurization. h. Development of the idea of aseptic surgery using a chemical antiseptic (phenol). i. Discovery of the etiological agent of anthrax and development of Koch’s Postulates. j. Development of the technique of streaking for isolation on solid media including agar. k. Development of the protocol for identifying the etiological agent of a disease (Koch’s Postulates). l. Development of an understanding of biogeochemical cycles (specifically the nitrogen cycle). m. Development of chemotherapy using the first synthetic drug (called salvarsan). n. Discovery of the first antibiotic (penicillin). o. Development of the 3-D model of the structure of DNA. 6. What is an infectious disease? 7. What leads to the appearance of an emerging infectious disease? Name some EID’s. 8. What are the major groups (domains) of microorganisms? a. Compare and contrast the Domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. b. Compare and contrast these eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths. c. What is a virus? d. What is a prion?
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Chapter 10 Study Guide—Classification of Microorganisms. NOTE: I will lecture on the information contained in Chapter 10 during the Chapter 1 lectures. I will only cover the material on pages 276-284 of the textbook (Tortora) - there are no online chapter notes for Chpt 10, so please ensure you read the relevant textbook pages. You are not responsible for the remainder of Chapter 10 (pgs. 285-298). Chapter 10 Study Questions: 1. Pay close attention to the vocabulary in the chapter. 2. Understand how and why organisms are classified in the “three domain system.” a. What are some characteristics of organisms found in each domain? 3.
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course POLISCI 101 taught by Professor Laraja during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Anitori_Ch_1_and_Ch_10 - Chapter 1 Study Guide The...

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