Biology 205 - Biology 205 Study Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1: The...

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Biology 205 Study Notes Exam 1 Lesson One: The Microbial World and You Lesson Objectives: 1. List several ways in which microbes affect our lives. Important and beneficial biological functions of Microbes: 1. Photosynthesis: Algae and some bacteria capture energy from sunlight and convert it to food, forming the basis of the food chain 2. Decomposers: Many microbes break down dead and decaying matter and recycle nutrients that can be used by other organisms 3. Nitrogen Fixation : Some bacteria can take nitrogen from air and incorporate it into soil 4. Digestion: Animals have microorganisms in their digestive tract, that are essential for digestion and vitamin synthesis o Cellulose digestion by ruminants (cows, rabbits, etc.) o Vitamin K and B synthesis in humans 5. Medicine: Many antibiotics and other drugs are naturally synthesized by microbes o Penicillin is made by a mold 6. Food Industry: Many important foods and beverages are made with microbes (alcohol, bread, vinegar, yogurt, cheese, pickles) 7. Genetic Engineering: Recent advances in gene splicing allow us to design recombinant microbes that produce important products 8. Medical Research: Microbes are well suited for biological and medical research for several reasons: o Relatively simple and small structures, easy to study; Genetic material is easily manipulated; Can grow a large number of cells very quickly and at low cost; Short generation times make them very useful to study genetic changes 2. Recognize the system of scientific nomenclature that uses genus and specific epithet names. Linnaeus : Binomial Nomenclature: scientific name for organism = genus + species names (examples: Homo sapiens, Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria that live on the skin), Escherichia coli (bacteria found in the colon)) 3. Differentiate among the major characteristics of each group of microorganisms. Types of microorganisms: Bacteria: unicellular; prokaryotic - 3 common shapes: coccus (spherical or ovoid); bacillus (rodlike); spiral (corkscrew or curved) - also star-shaped (genus Stella ) or square (Archaea) genus Haloarcula ) forms - cell wall with peptidoglycan - cell division by binary fission - autotrophic & heterotrophic forms - some motile (flagella or axial filament) Archaea : unicellular; prokaryotic - cell walls in some (lacks peptidoglycan) - often found in extreme environments - 3 main groups: methanogens (release methane as a waste product of respiration); extreme halophiles (live in extremely salty environments); extreme thermophiles (live in hot sulfurous water)
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Fungi : unicellular (yeasts) & multicellular forms; eukaryotic - cell wall with chitin - molds: form mycelia (branching, filamentous hyphae) - reproduce sexually or asexually - heterotrophic; saprophytic Protozoa : unicellular; eukaryotic - move by flagella, cilia, or pseudopods (cytoplasmic extensions) - heterotrophic; free-living or parasites - sexual or asexual reproduction Algae : unicellular, colonial & multicellular forms; eukaryotic
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course POLISCI 101 taught by Professor Laraja during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Biology 205 - Biology 205 Study Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1: The...

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