STUDY GUIDE And QUESTIONS - KEYES CHAPTER 9 MUSCLES AND MUSCLE TISSUE 1. Compare and contrast the basic types of muscle tissue. 2. List four important functions of muscle tissue. 3. Describe the gross structure of a skeletal muscle. 4. Describe the microscopic structure and functional roles of the myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules of muscle fibers (cells). 5. Explain the sliding filament mechanism. 6. Define motor unit and explain how muscle fibers are stimulated to contract. 7. Define muscle twitch and describe the events occurring during its three phases. 8. Explain how smooth, graded contractions of a skeletal muscle are produced. 9. Differentiate between isometric and isotonic contractions. 10. Describe three ways in which ATP is regenerated during skeletal muscle contraction. 11. Define oxygen debt and muscle fatigue. List possible causes of muscle fatigue. 12. Describe factors that influence the force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle contraction. 13. Describe three types of skeletal muscle fibers and explain the relative value of each type. 14. Compare and contrast the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on skeletal muscles and on other body systems. 15. Compare the gross and microscopic anatomy of smooth muscle cells to that of skeletal muscle cells. Review Questions Multiple Choice/Matching (Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best answer or answers from the choices given.) 1. The connective tissue covering that encloses the sarcolemma of an individual muscle fiber is called the (a) epimysium, (b) perimysium, (c) endomysium, (d) periosteum. 2. A fascicle is a (a) muscle, (b) bundle of muscle fibers enclosed by a connective tissue sheath, (c) bundle of myofibrils, (d) group of myofilaments. 3. Thick and thin myofilaments have different compositions. For each descriptive phrase, indicate whether the filament is (a) thick or (b) thin. ____ (1) contains actin ____ (2) contains ATPases
____ (3) attaches to the Z disc ____ (4) contains myosin ____ (5) contains troponin ____ (6) does not lie in the I band 4. The function of the T tubules in muscle contraction is to (a) make and store glycogen, (b) release Ca 2+ into the cell interior and then pick it up again, (c) transmit the action potential deep into the muscle cells, (d) form proteins. 5. The sites where the motor nerve impulse is transmitted from the nerve endings to the skeletal muscle cell membranes are the (a) neuromuscular junctions, (b) sarcomeres, (c) myofilaments, (d) Z discs. 6. Contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is called (a) a twitch, (b) wave summation, (c) multiple motor unit summation, (d) fused tetanus. 7. A smooth, sustained contraction resulting from very rapid stimulation of the muscle, in which no evidence of relaxation is seen, is called (a) a twitch, (b) wave summation, (c) multiple motor unit summation, (d) fused tetanus. 8.
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