Ch1_7SG1 - Biology 205 Study Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1 The Microbial World You Linnaeus Binomial Nomenclature scientific name for organism = genus

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Biology 205 Study Notes Exam 1 Linnaeus : Binomial Nomenclature: scientific name for organism = genus + species names (examples: Homo sapiens, Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria that live on the skin), Escherichia coli (bacteria found in the colon)) Types of microorganisms: Bacteria: unicellular; prokaryotic - 3 common shapes: coccus (spherical or ovoid); bacillus (rodlike); spiral (corkscrew or curved) - also star-shaped (genus Stella ) or square (Archaea) genus Haloarcula ) forms - cell wall with peptidoglycan - cell division by binary fission - autotrophic & heterotrophic forms - some motile (flagella or axial filament) Archaea : unicellular; prokaryotic - cell walls in some (lacks peptidoglycan) - often found in extreme environments - 3 main groups: methanogens (release methane as a waste product of respiration); extreme halophiles (live in extremely salty environments); extreme thermophiles (live in hot sulfurous water) Fungi : unicellular (yeasts) & multicellular forms; eukaryotic - cell wall with chitin - molds: form mycelia (branching, filamentous hyphae) - reproduce sexually or asexually - heterotrophic; saprophytic Protozoa : unicellular; eukaryotic - move by flagella, cilia, or pseudopods (cytoplasmic extensions) - heterotrophic; free-living or parasites - sexual or asexual reproduction Algae : unicellular, colonial & multicellular forms; eukaryotic - unicellular forms most important in microbiology - cell wall with cellulose - Viruses : abiotic (nonliving); acellular - nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat - some have a lipid envelope - parasitic (need host to reproduce) Multicellular Animal Parasites: - Classification of Microorganisms: 3 domains proposed by Carl Woese : Bacteria : cell wall with peptidoglycan Archaea : cell wall without peptidoglycan Eukarya Study Notes Exam 1 1
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Historical Perspectives : Robert Hooke (1665): first to observe cells under a microscope - cell theory : all living things composed of cells ( Schleiden and Schwann , 1830s) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1673-1723): observed live microorganisms (“animalcules” later found to be bacteria & protozoa) Spontaneous Generation vs. Biogenesis: Spontaneous generation: the idea that living things can arise from nonliving matter - Francisco Redi: maggots appeared on decaying meat only after flies were able to lay eggs on the meat - John Needham: claimed microorganisms could arise spontaneously from heated nutrient broth - Lazzaro Spallanzani: suggested Needham’s results were due to microorganisms from the air - Rudolf Virchow: Biogenesis: living things only arise from preexisting cells/organisms - Louis Pasteur: repeated Needham’s experiments using flask with bent neck – air was able to enter the flask, but bacteria from the air were not able to travel through the neck of the flask – no contamination… proof for
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course POLISCI 101 taught by Professor Laraja during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Ch1_7SG1 - Biology 205 Study Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1 The Microbial World You Linnaeus Binomial Nomenclature scientific name for organism = genus

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