4020-F-2011-HW11 - (+020 4:- 2c? M V Dow, \luewéouf Hm. #...

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Unformatted text preview: (+020 4:- 2c? M V Dow, \luewéouf Hm. # H NW 9‘" HM 2 KW b': Bums/«A Vac/(WY =5 aeSun/ze 32i- CW] SW WW “=7 Cassuwce [0,9915 cm? (5 = K t Comtwflfi vchiug =2 say 1% To 9% [Y1 We cm euwfiw ylem {S FactSOI/chI/olél cowstofiw +142 {Mlowl‘rg/ Qfmrple ‘ WM ergfutoe 0th CW ‘ C! )’ T’W’xcdu‘ufi m am am 0c 040% Heed M #usfw 13.0 S K ’j/Mofe CP=(9.383/oqwl< Nb M=¢39w E=ek8bio<, 3 AWUMBC VvLuuM. ‘2 7:! aw //IMO[ 7w. : (098‘ °C “(Via/1" me, W cm a, {mam ficqut‘afl od- RT, wich 01/ “buLK’lwW flAcuL OCNW’ (IA/(9M +I/zo, chFa/(Uvne Cw M “Le, ewess fweaé 13% AH+UC,W CL) NWC/HM% +142 CF. CWmLc‘w/o, WM momma be m radii/9d? W“ Cm, m A”, +0 Mama m Wc'H/a Hag CF WOHW 7- '13 A {ow/WM, VDOLFQA) 19% WW. Webb} 5?— {CW/wus mam/claw 0.8 +14? [ti EP XWW‘WJ‘ w? COVvI/wéé, Mow *Wwwflkca 14w hum Pam‘o SprSCw/VW a? bio made/MW) 5km ‘H/LOc/fl" “JIM/glad Cm+afl4t¥<a {0’14 ML 4&2 0L SW {Dace/3L Cow’wu‘uaofl a, +uu \‘d, Com/cm 7W3 {aCwaMQL DOM—(IOU ‘ ,5 [come MwQ‘uslo L32. IO’Daflgwe/J/m b = 2? 24° QyLu’Zr: (/m 25} 2 _ b x W ‘“ 7. &’ Hwy!)wa :5.ng To (Mme, alch Sam, gag/LL dag fig 5424+; Home MWH Wng be swam/€05 W a. 914/959 ’5’ waW, SIN/(cg aflW wwlz 3U WOW} SW 1mm)? Mace, we we Mam M; W slmege [Fmaaeé nu} ecu/1, Ice, CCCCWLCSHZOZ [by Ce/c/ofyfud cL+w£é¥“VLg{ MAUI/may} JrLccoé éwt‘sts H412 IONA/£91024. Cap—Moate £149, 1LL0I‘5lefvt Mm, (Po/0’ cm) M 7‘w‘s.wbc5w‘/4M~’ . win. \i/etio siewieot at (idiom LawloioQ, “warmer, meat, vow/c Amer/(CW Luducw. area butchequ \ ‘ @tetoeatione in .Witieitere ‘ References Citing Articles {23} Page Images ‘W. W. thiamine U. Dragsdori. and W. D. Forgei'ig Metaia Research Laboratories, E ieorro Metaiiurgicai Company: Division of Union Carbide Corporation, Niagara Faiia, i’iew ir’orir : Received 28 Augustigfii; published in the issue dated October ‘1 E15? ,ifieievww iwio B‘iocmc‘cw, WOW—V $ W “"OMW (C9 Yemél_lUniversity_ . .1, i, ' I I > 1 ‘ V j b . V " .V‘Searchcorne'lt acuity 84 Research . list in Alphabetical Order l Faculty list According to Research Theme | Faculty list According to Department Watt W. Webb , Samuel B. Eckert Professor in Engineering; Professor of Applied Physics; Director of Developmentai Resource for Biophysical Imaging Dpto-eieotronics " "" - — . F p ~ I!“ .c. . ~ - _ N - 607-255-3331 Address School of Applied and Engineering Physics ' 223 Clark Hall 1 Cornell UniVersity Ithaca, NY 14853-2703 BMCB Handbook Ema" MW Graduate Field of web Sites De Mm m pr I8 Genetics and Devempment (GED) Background Watt W. Webb Is a Professor of Applied Physics, S.Ei. Eckert Professor In Engineering and Director of the National Institutes of Health Developmental Graduate Field of Resource for Biophysical Imaging Opto-Electrohics [DREIIO] since 1908. He joined the Cornell faculty In 1961 as Associate Professor of Engineering Physics Biophysics » - and was named Professor of Applied Physics in 1965 and 5.3. Eckert Professor in Engineering in 1998. He served as the Director of Cornellys School of ~ »’ » » ‘ Applied and Engineering Physics from 1903 to 1988. He began his career at Union Carbide Research Laboratories as a Research Engineer in 1947-1952. Department Of After receiving his Ph.D. in 1955, he returned to Union Carbide In successive positions as a Research Scientist (1955—1959), Coordinator of Fundamental glfllecglai BiUIDQV “5‘ Research (1959-1960), and Assistant Director of Research (1960-1961). As a Cornell faculty member, he has supervised over 45 Ph.D. theses. = one ics; r . Webb's recent awards include the National Lectureship of the Biophysical Society (2002), Rank Prize in Opto-electronics (2000), the Jablonski Prize of the Bioph Ical Society (2000), the Michelson Morley Award of Case-Western Rese Universl ' ' Prize of the American WM...— MM-M .14...- £4.41 “M... u... b. ......._..i ‘ Life Sciences at Corrie dome > . chance Madazine '; 23 My 3008 > fiarman e? £5, 320 (5379}: 1088-1653 Pubnshed Online May1 2008 < WW “(We 0f Can-mm “km > onearlsysusm Science 23 May 2008: ,Hhsml Vol.32Dno‘587Q pp.1osD-1053 C ‘ in ‘ _ l > . DOI: 1U.1126/sc|ence.11571a1 CI 4 ‘- . . '» Full Tam - W SW OU‘OM -- film? REPORT special ’ Full Text (PDF) ‘ . alllcle : m ures om Dislocation-Driven Nanowire Growth and Eshelby Twist 5C! 6“ (Q . grimy I; 8Upportiug Onllne 1 g 1 a 2 .1 1 . 3:133? lulnflllew J. Herman—HY. K. Albert LaII—'-. Alexander V. Kvit—i Andrew L. Schmin— and Song .Jin-JI gm,“ Material ulhorAfl'Iliaiinns (u . w {9 COM 9411‘ 13 U {Ca}: W T To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mall: mmamwfimwu 31*These authors contributed squallytu thls work‘ 2‘ O 0 8 ON HIMORY , 32011587911060 (mast recent) '1157131v1 allThls Page * Suhrnlt an E-Lafler A 7‘ . f: . . u ; . u ‘ . . . ’ "un'ma"'_la' fiep‘mk In the burgeoning field of nanoselence‘ a major ambition IS to synthesue nanuscale bUIIdIng blacks ufarhnrary and..mataxialfimfinareasinmtmmInlaxitxmflnegdimamsinnal. ' ' ‘ ;_ (5e Law a. ‘(nz 0/0 @4Ha; (@Mchboc/‘F Davao, redemc/Ww ml I inhé Wee,va V . £0 can/cmch [00 f? {Leticia S1569,” Q0061?» W Si. They owe MWQFML I I‘LL JCLLQ smes , Asguwu‘bwf equz'l/‘bw‘um CMO watéewh‘opc FvwfloLPM 75w mfg ,L‘A $30? CC-b—le-‘WV MA—éd-Ze ca ’Nmz‘ We SW99 fut, flea Engcyé‘ew ‘75 mameg , WW {new 0 ‘2 ll ' "/W 0(~&’r/owo% Rafi/Z (Ham 17 .[O Wed, 15% Synge/wo +W 7L0 l/l/LfvtfH/Lfia fag W M We flame a; mpot QW- TLwoJ Us , Wu; WP? 066410 13‘) “5&7 a’ W ffl‘m‘h‘w mauQQ/Q Z E= 5i. ‘ 2/ b= Cam} (I 2 Ech = ‘NO 0&7“ /W bi) Wee/{9, we Yuma/Le I'M Mam/WW @VCO/u% M' 150 ’FWOQVLI\W me flag @007) (b 3‘) 175 3% hxwa Mame wwugh fiat/We 9W W'I‘lLW flacmf— a , J, $117!] 0.2% 9 __ / 503/77 4“ (/160qu CLVCLLIW 06‘:ch oh‘am‘wv [2 NW rocoél‘us) =- (ll/Om, ob‘slc space/6mg (VB/W. 0t.) AQSuow‘qu H49, Foim‘ 6Q®7[€C/{‘S have I flu; 091(ch UW M SZ/‘cw-n/ how WW $30?me oéefea‘s /W 0? Wyaqu ouglo codr‘ow , Me U 81L04’z/‘806 U 00‘ ‘Hf/K 06540 €66,ch 7. WWI/VOMLCW) came a ‘QCérbcc/LL @MCQ/Vd/VOLHW . ’ .9. =7 éuJDaUQWLWOLH‘r/‘M VOL/7'0 As M WM owl 89000C/ ww ;s m, SLIPQJQOLDLUVGL)L1‘W vau’fd’ C hm 1Lqu ve/wj ,qu I ibw‘m‘oh‘ve www) ‘ w— —— E Co NCTI‘Q l—F,¥m example, yam. 9 . 4/ t 5‘ Myw 75M fdés yW VCCCWA CV ~8>< We“, a; I'M W‘QLJLUW @WLLWQ: VCka mm deyM/k fMotx‘vt +CJDLQ/g Kr (Pa/26060643, +OLIG’6? mm+ zeta/cabqu wma‘m 02/ The General Properties of Si, Ge, SiGe, SiOz and Si3N4 June 2002 Virginia Semiconductor 1501 Powhatan Street, Fredericksburg, VA 22401-4647 USA Phone: (540) 373-2900, FAX (540) 371-0371 www.virginiasemi.com, tech@viminiasemi.com A. Introduction This paper summarizes basic physical properties of Si, Ge, SiGe, SiOz and Si3N4. It also lists several physical constants and conversion factors. The information is presented in table format with explanations of any approximations or equations used. B. The Basic Properties of Si, Ge, and SiGe The following table summarizes many of the basic physical properties of Silicon, Germanium, and Silicon Germanium at different concentrations. The concentrations are given in the form of Si1.xGeX where x represents the percent composition of Germanium. 4.42.); 10 *4.415x 10 *4.61 x 10 *4.805 x 5.0X10‘ 1 Ge 1022 Si 72.60 *61.4725 *50.345 *39.2175 , 28.09 - Ge - Si Breakdown field ~10 *1.5 X 10 *2 X 10 *2.5 x 10 ~3 X 10 /cm Ge Si Density (g/cm ) 5.3267 *4.577 *3.827 *3.078 2.328 Ge 1 Si Ge r Si Effective density of 1.04 x 10 ‘ 2.8 X10 States in conduction Ge 51, band, Nc (cm'3 Effective density of 6.0 x 10 ‘ 1.04 X_ 10 States in valence Ge ' . 5‘ band, Nv cm"3 Effective Mass, m*/ mo Electrons Holes Ge . Si Electron affini *40125 *4025 *40375 — Minimum Indirect 0.66 ***0.804 ***0.945 ***1.05 1.12 Energy Gap (eV) at Ge Si 300K Ener Ga eV Ge Si Intrinsic carrier 2.4 X 10 *1.8 X 10 *1.2 X 10 *0.6 x 10 1.45 X 10 ' concentration crn'3 Ge Si Intrinsic Debye 0.68 *6.51 *12.34 * 1 8.17 24 len h m Ge ' Si 7 Intrinsic resistivity 47 *.575 X 10 *1.15 X 10 *1.725 X 10 2.3 X 10 Q-cm Ge 3' Lattice Constant (A) ***5.6575 ***5.5960 ***5.5373 ***5.4825 ***5.4310 Ge ' Linear coefficient of 5.8 X 10' thermal expansion, Ge AL/LAT(°C'1 Melting point (°C) 937 *1056.5 *1176 *1295.5 ' 1415 . Ge - Si Minority carrier 18' *1.375 X 10' *1.75 X 10' *2.12§ X 10' 2.5 >S{.10' e . 1 lifetime (s) Mobility (drift) 3900(electron) *3 3 00(electron) *7700(electron) *21 00(electron) I 5 00(electron) (cmZ/V-s) v 1900(hole) * 1 537 .5 (hole) *1 175(h01e) * 8 12.5 (hole) 450(hole) Ge Si Optical — phonon 0.037‘ 0.063 energ eV Ge Si Phonon mean free 105 76 path Ge (electron) AMA) , 55 (hole) ' Si Specific heat (J/g- 0.31 *.4075 *.505 *.6025 0.7 0C SI Thermal 0.6 **.11 **.083 conductivity at 300 Ge K W/cm-°C Thermal diffusivity 0.36 *0.495 *.63 (cmz/s) Vapor pressure (Pa) 1 at 1330°C 1 at *1410°C 1 at *1490°C 1 at 1 at 1650°C 10'6 at 760°C 10'6 at *795 10-6 at *830°C *1570°c 10‘6 at Ge ' 10‘6 at 900°C *865°C Si * value was derived through linear approximation ; ** value was derived through subjective observation of graph/diagram [1]; *** value was derived through quadratic approximation TABLE 1 lists physical properties of Si, Ge, and S'iGe [2][3] The linear approximations were calculated using the following function where Cs]- represents the Silicon value, CGe represents the Germanium value, and X represents the fractional composition of Germanium: 3100: C31 (1'X) + CGe (X)- All values in the above table for SiGe are %atm values. The values for the thermal conductivity were taken from a graph[1][7]. The values for the minimum indirect energy gap were determined from both a graph[1][8] and also from the following quadratic expression where x represents the fractional composition of Germanium: Eg(x)= (1.155 — 0.43x + 0.0206x2 )eV for 0 < x < 0.85 [l][5] and Eg(x)= (2.010 — 1.27x)eV for 0.85 < x < 1 [1] [5] The values for themin'imum direct energy gap were determined from references [1],[6]. The lattice constants were determined using the following quadratic expression where x represents the percent of Germanium in the composition: a(x) = 0.002733x2+ 0.01992x + 0.5431 (nm)[9]. C. The Basic Pro erties of SiOz and Si3N4 Insulator: SiOz Si3N4 Amorphous - Structure ' Amorphous Meltin Point °c ~1600 Densi /cm 3-1 Refractive index > - 1.4 2.05 Dielectric constant . a 7.5 Dielectric stren; h V/cm 10 10 Infrared absortion band m 9.3 11.5 — 12.0 Ener :- 9 - Thermal Expansion 5 x 10- coefficient "0'1 Thermal conductivi W/cm- ' dc resistivity (Q-cm) at 25 °C at 500 °C Etch rate in Buffered HFa 1000 5-10 (XX/min . a Buffered HF: 34.6% (wt) NH4F, 6.8% (wt) HF, 58.6% H20 TABLE 2 lists physical properties of Si02 and Si3N4. [2] D. Ph sical Constants Name ’ Value magnitude of electronic charge 1.602 X 10'19 C electron mass in free space 9.109 X 10~31 kg permittivity of vacuum 8.854 X 10'14 F/cm Boltzmann’s constant ' 1.381 X 10‘23 J/K 8.617 X10'5eV/K Planck’s constant ' 6.625 X 10'34 J-s 4.135 X10'15eV-s thermal energy 0.02586 eV (T = 27 °C) 0.02526 eV (T = 20 °C) 0.026 eV room temerature TABLE 3 lists the symbols for several common physical constants and gives their value. [4] E. Conversion Factors 1A =10'8cm =10'10m 1 mm =10'4cm =10'6m 1 mil = 10'3 in = 25.4 gm 1 mil2 = 645.2 m2 = 6.45 x 10'6 cm2 — 1.602 x 10'ng ...
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4020-F-2011-HW11 - (+020 4:- 2c? M V Dow, \luewéouf Hm. #...

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