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Unformatted text preview: AMCHMMQ Mafia; TI V “IVES QCoLLFC ' I . s) «2) I. SPHW {19W WWW/ah? ‘- WM mysz & . ‘fgwpeffld [vb . Lid? W694 3 (EWQ‘dQG/U' 033:?er (:WL @0614» I 6V0 ‘3!ijng ‘ QMLM/Lsfpm g I GUM J)- ocvé w‘GQQ/LLHCDCO . E; r: E D \' ' Twp-{wee 0%; We 9qu " cam/WK plead/1W} W dz‘fkt’wh oflepwoaw 0% 66;» five. _ WLVQCKUQMU' fime'xi] ‘ wit/emba/md'oflrfiww/ _' . 'j ' "VA (.VI‘EDoLSW’OmL Com vva WWW) ~ I 3 . @xpmiw«@;4_mcogr/a% V. I, (Oowt ' ' ' ' ‘ g . 2 “ _ . - “‘3’ ' ” Ex. . . Eykwgiwmf ofiogbtdflcfix/Loéepwwf Loom/s ~ fiy—deufl {9 ' ' - - £;?"CS‘5 g 'm' fl—l/Z’é/3MW97/xcawefi} - ' W9 ' , . k V ‘ ‘ (F g 2 1‘5 WOW wch l/LVOJAS(WJ‘ We, WW Q’CHQQVOfQ—L/(wé 0 =5” 8 RWHU = “gm wfi-Lgf ) M" Wff/ ' ' ‘I‘VL _ - (OI/(Nome ’ N t C1) g9 " \— ° SIVL , E . 7 W9, am SEQ/)- 0;)Wffi (Z) . tum; . v2» w 1409/: Lam/Hg oz? 'wvflldcah‘; - W0 Wfi TW‘VLK OLQ N» (41,9 Pvaan Q/[GCQHCfiEf . Ant-WE dwe ecu/auto QCW/uv-CLIWLW. 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' 9/29/2008 6:20:49 Emerald FullText Article : Effect of benzotriazole derivatives on the corrosion of steel in simulated concrete pore solutions - -» Page 1 Effect of benzotriazole derivatives on the corrosion of steel in simulated concrete pore solutions ' ' The Authors Mashal Sheban, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam,.New York, USA Muna Abu-Dalo, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York, USA Ayman Ababneh, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York, USA Silvana Andreescu, Department of Chemistry, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York, USA Acknowledgements The authors would gratefully like to acknowledge the support provided by the New York State Energy Research'and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Clarkson University Centre for the Environment (CCE) for this study. NYSERDA has not reviewed the information contained herein, and. the _opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of NYSERDA or the State of New York. Abstract Purpose — The aim of this research was to develop corrosion protection systems for reinforced concrete structures under chloride attack. Benzotriaiole (BTA) and BTA derivatives were used as corrosion protection materials for the steel. ' ' Designlmethodology/approach ~‘The effect of BTA and four other BTA derivatives on the corrosion resistance of steel in simulated concrete pore (SC'P) solutions was studied. BTA derivatives were used as two separate protection systems: inhibition and pickling protection systems. The experiments were . performed in SCP solutions which simulated concrete with and without seVere chloride attacks. Electrochemical techniques, i.e. potentiodynamic polarization an electrochemical impedance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTlR) were used to assess the steel corrosion protection systems. Findings — The potentiodynamic polarization studies showed an increase in the pitting potential for all protection systems tested. in addition, a large increase in the steel solution interfacial resistance was observed by electrochemical impedance studies (ElS) due to the formation of steel-BTA derivatives complex on the surface. This film was formed on the steel surface with either mono-or bi-dentate bonds between the triazolic nitrogen ring and the steel surface as shown by the FTlR. Research limitations/implications — BTA derivatives provided good protection for steel in SCP solutions, indicating their applicability in reinforced concrete ' structures. However, tests using reinforced concrete samples are required to study possible interactions between steel, BTA derivatives and concrete ~ constitutes, e.g. sand, gravel, cement and chemical admixtures. These BTA—based systems also should be studied under carbonation attack. Originality/value — BTA derivatives provided a good protection for steel in the SCP solutions, and this indicates the applicability to use them in reinforced concrete structures. . ~ v Article Type: Research paper Keyword(s): Corrosion protection; Concretes; Steel. Journal: Anti—Corrosion Methods and/Materials Volume: 54 NUmber’: 3 Year: 2007 pp: 135-147 Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited ISSN: 0003-5599 ~ ' ~ ' ‘ t 1 introduction Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a major deterioration mechanism for concrete structures in cold, marine and industrial environments. Corrosion damage accelerates the aging of highway bridges, concrete pavements, parking structures, waterfront structures, water and'wastewater treatment structures. This, in turn, shortens their remaining service life, requires expenditures for maintenance, repair or replacement, endangers the public safety and damages the _ environment. Corrosion of steelreinforcement is a major deterioration mechanism forthe infrastructure systems-worldwide. ' ' In reinforced concrete, the formation of an oxide passive film on the steel surfaces protects the reinforcing bars (rebars) from corrosion. This film is stable and effectively prevents steel corrosion when the pH is greater than 11.5 (Benture et al., 1997). However, depassivation of that film and onset of active corrosion can arise in conjunction with two particular conditions: carbonation and chloride intrusion (or a combination of both). in the carbonation attack, atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) penetrates into concrete and reacts with pore solution alkali and calcium hydroxide in concrete; these reactions cause a drastic drop in the alkalinity of the pore solution to levels of about pH 8 (Hartt et al.-, 2004). Under this low alkalinity, the passive film of‘the steel'is destroyed and a uniform corrosion starts. On the other hand, a chloride attack arises in cdnjunction with de-icing activities or» from coastal exposure. Although chloride ions have small r effect on pH of the pore solution, the presence of chloride ions above a specified threshold level depassivates the protective film of the steel and pitting corrosion usually occurs, (Saremi and Mahallati, 2002; Xi and Ababneh, 2000). Several corrosion prevention methods have been studied and used in engineering practices. Among these, corrosion inhibitors and protective coatings are the - most widely used to prevent reinforced steel'rebar corrosion in concrete structures. Calcium nitrite is the most common Commercial inhibitor used to prevent steel rebar'corrosion in concrete, but its toxicity (Monticelli et al., 2002) and reduction in long-term concrete strength (Ann et al., 2006) encourage the search for an alternative. Various other inhibitors have been reported in the literature to protect steel rebars in concrete, e.g. sodium phosphate, sodium nitrite (Dhouibi et al. 2000), aminoalcohols (Jamil etal. 2005), amine-esters, alkanolamines (ormellese et al., 2006), red mud (Collazo stat, 2005), sodium nitrate (Xu et al.. 2004), 5-aminouracil (Nakayama and Obuchi, 2003), and 5-hexyl-benzotriazole (CGBTA) (Monticelli et al., 2002). Protective coating using epoxy or zinc coating have http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet;jsessionid=82DD60C3F71049DDDOCB79OE1140D1B3?Fi1... 9/29/2008 6:21 :09 PM Emerald! FullText Article : Effect of benzotriazole derivatives on the corrosion of steel in simulated concrete pore solutions Page 9 "\ - '-. Figure -8Schematic diagram of Nyquist plot and equivalent circuit for steel in SCP so/ution 160,000 120,000 ~o— No' Protection w» BTA a: MBTA _ DMBTA ~46“ MSBTA ' + CABTA al.m4Ju_.l._u.1._..‘.._..l—_L.....l_‘_L«u[um-JwuuI.......L_‘.L_.“|.....J._..L......l...mlw{I...l.~~.L«...1..._.L.mf—.I.....J___l..~...|~.m’.m—I ____________ .T __________ ......... 0‘ '50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 r . - ‘ Z' (ohm.cmz) ' V Figure 9Nyquist diagrams for steel in SOP solution under chloride attack with and without pickling protection system 80,000 ' -z" (ohmcmz) 40,000 I 50,000 40,000 O 4 ' 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 , 120,000 I . , I Z (ohm.cm2) ' Figure 10Nyquist diagrams for steel in SCP solution under chloride attack with and without inhibition protection system 140,000 1 http ://Www.emera1dinSight.com/Insight/ViewContentservletj sessionid=82DD60’C3F71049DDDOCB790E1 140D 1B3?F i1... " 9/29/2008 6:21:09 PM I " I ’Mém/‘Q' WQ/ OM/Q/ I‘m/WU/LM‘JZ fpr g/ , QC) 5: Eye il¢(E—+rw% / ' g2; :- QoficjfiwL/‘S/‘Hgfi (Ewfll'oUK) ...
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Add-Notes-IV-ViscoElastic - AMCHMMQ Mafia TI V “IVES...

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