defects - Chapter4 Imperfections Point and Line Defects...

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Chapter4 Imperfections: Point and Line Defects
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Dimensional Ranges for Different Classes of Defects
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Stress Required to Shear a Crystal
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Atomic point defect s. Two most common point defects in compounds: Schottky and Frenkel defect s. Point Defects
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Interstices in FCC structure. (a) Octahedral void. (b) Tetrahedral void. Interstices in the BCC structure. (a) Octahedral void. (b) Tetrahedral void. Interstices in the HCP structure. (a) Octahedral void. (b) Tetrahedral void. Point Defects
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Formation of point defects by the annihilation of dislocations. (a) Row of vacancies. (b) Row of interstitials. Point Defects
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Stress-versus-strain curves for aluminum single crystals. The crystallographic orientation is shown in the stereographic triangle. (Adapted with permission from A. H. Cottrell, Phil. Mag ., 46 (1955) p. 737.) Aluminum Single Crystals
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Seeger model of damage produced by irradiation. P indicates the position where the first “knock-on” terminates. (Reprinted with permission from A. Seeger, in Proc. Symp. Radiat. Damage Solids React ., Vol. 1, (Vienna, IAEA, 1962) pp. 101, 105 .) Voids formed in nickel irradiated using 400 keV 14N2 + ions to a dose of 40 dpa at 500 C; notice the voids with polyhedral shape; dpa = displacements per atom. (Courtesy of L. J. Chen and A. J. Ardell.) Radiation Damage
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Stress–strain curves for irradiated and unirradiated Zircaloy. (Adapted with permission from J. T. A. Roberts, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci ., NS-22, (1975) 2219.) Radiation Damage
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Stress-free dilation in AISI 316 steel (20% cold worked). (Adapted with permission from J. T. A. Roberts, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci ., NS-22, (1975) 2219.) Dependence of fast neutron-induced dilation in stainless steel (Fe–Cr–Ni) as a function of Ni and Cr amounts. (Adapted with permission from W. B. Hillig, Science , 191 (1976) 733.) Radiation Damage
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(a) Rug with a fol d. Caterpillar with a hump. Line Defects
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(a) Arrangement of atoms in an edge dislocation and the Burgers vector b that produces closure of circuit ABCDE . (b) Arrangement of atoms in screw dislocation with “parking garage” setup. (Notice car entering garage.) Edge and Screw Dislocations
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Geometrical production of dislocations. (a) Perfect crystal. (b) Edge dislocation. (c) Screw dislocatio n.
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deformation of a crystal by the movement of a dislocation along a slip plane. Plastic Deformation
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defects - Chapter4 Imperfections Point and Line Defects...

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