410 Notes Ferrous Alloys - MS&E 410/510 Class Notes...

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D. Low Carbon Steels 1. Overview • C ≤ 0.8 wt% (all fractions in wt% unless otherwise noted) • typically also Mn 0.45 – 0.9%, P 0.025-0.06%, S 0.03-0.05% • most important group of engineering materials (!) • carbon content is distinguishing feature • main advantage = inexpensive for performance level • but disadvantages - cannot be strengthened above about 690 MN/m2 without loss of ductility and impact resistance. - not very hardenable, depth of hardening is limited. - low corrosion and oxidation resistance. - must be quenched very rapidly to obtain a fully martensitic structure, leading to the possibility of quench distortion and cracking. - poor impact resistance at low temperatures. 2. Iron and Dead Mild Steels • C 0.15-0.2% • easily fabricated, low strength • plates and tubes 3. Mild Steels • C 0.15-0.3% • good strength • readily shaped by cold or hot forming, machining, casting • structural and machine applications, I-beams, channels, screws 4. Medium Carbon Steels • C 0.3 – 0.6%, Mn 0.60 - 1.65% • much higher strength, often heat treated • used for shafts, axles, gears, crankshafts, couplings and forgings • steels in the 0.40 to 0.60% C range also used for rails, railway wheels and rail axles 5. High Carbon, or Carbon Tool Steels • C 0.6-1.0%, Mn 0.3-0.9% • used for spring materials and high-strength wires 6. Nomenclature a) many different systems - different industry and standards organizations have different schemes, these are different in different countries and industries) - most common is SAE-AISI designation (SAE = society for automotive engineers, AISI = American iron and steel institute b) Standard scheme for steels is four digit designation XXXX - first two digits = type of steel - second two digits = carbon content in 100ths of a % c) Standard Plain Carbon Steels - 10XX = plain carbon
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- 11XX = “resulphurized” - 12XX = “rephosphorized” - 15XX= plain carbon + Mn 1.00 – 1.65% 7. Some applications of low carbon steels a) Home: domestic appliances such as fridges, washing machines, ovens and microwaves. b) Travel and Transport: car bodies, engine components, wheels, axles, trucks, transmissions, trains, rails, ships, anchor chains, aircraft undercarriages, jet engine components. c) Construction: Building frames and structural elements (plates, angles, hangers ties, beams) for all sizes of buildings, sports stadia, transportation stations, etc. Reinforcing bars for concrete, bridge deck plates, piers and suspension cables, cladding and roofing. Heating/cooling equipment and ductwork d) Power and energy: Oil and gas wells and platforms, pipelines, power turbine components, wind turbine pylons. e) Electrical and Magnetic: Electromagnets, transformer cores,
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410 Notes Ferrous Alloys - MS&E 410/510 Class Notes...

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