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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - The Liver Gall bladder Pancreas The...

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The Liver, Gall bladder & Pancreas: The accessory organs of the body Liver: Relational Anatomy The center of the liver contains the falciform ligament separating the left lobe from the right lobe The falciform ligament is a double fold of peritoneum. It is one of the 5 peritoneum folds in the abdominal region. The liver is the second largest organ in the body, after the skin The liver occupies the entire epigastric and hypochondriac region on the right side (Image attached below) Another ligament present between the two lobes of the liver is the round ligament. This ligament lies between the peritoneum folds and is also known as the ligamentum teres. The umbilical vein returning oxygenated blood from the placenta to the developing fetus turn into the ligamentum teres. The functions of the liver One of the liver's main functions is to produce bile. The bile is collected in a duct system spanning the two lobes hepatic ducts from the right and left lobe of the liver coalesce (combine together) to form the common hepatic duct. The Gallbladder, positioned on the inferior surface of the right liver lobe also connects to the common hepatic duct via the cystic duct. The combination of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct forms the common bile duct. Moving further down, the common bile duct will then coalesce with the pancreatic duct. The location where this combination occurs is known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla (Ampulla of Vater). The term ampulla refers to the fact that there is a slight enlargement of the lumen in this region.
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The hepatopancreatic sphincter is the last barrier to pass before the bile juices enter the duodenum. The hpatopancreatic sphincter is also known as the sphincter of Oddi. Liver: Anatomy The right lobe of the liver is the largest lobe. Besides the right lobe, we also have three more lobes: Caudate lobe (Posterior, between left and right lobe) Left lobe Quadrate lobe (The gall bladder sites right under the quadrate lobe) Porta hepatis (The location where arterial blood supply and venous blood supply come from GI tract to liver. The hepatic portal vein)
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Liver: Ducts Right hepatic duct + Left hepatic duct = Common hepatic duct Common hepatic duct + Cystic duct = Common bile duct Common bile duct + Pancreatic duct -> Duodenum
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Liver: Blood Supply The blood supply to the liver is via the celiac trunk. The celiac trunk becomes the common hepatic artery.
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Liver: A dual blood supply Incoming to the liver The liver receives oxygen rich blood via the hepatic arteries. Additionally, the liver also receives oxygen poor but nutrient rich blood from the gastrointestinal tract via the hepatic portal vein. Outgoing from the liver The blood will leave the liver via the hepatic veins. The hepatic vein connects to the inferior vena cava.
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