Read And Know The Big Picture:
The Neolithic Revolution changed the way people lived their lives
The discovery of agriculture allowed people to change the way they lived.
slash and burn agriculture
There was the breeding of animals
More stability (a permanent settlement) led to more people (an increase in population)
Farmers began to organize themselves, and began to develop a surplus of food
There was specialization of labor
The beginning of privately owned land led to the emergence of a wealthier class. The
ownership of this land equaled economic power.
Neolithic people had to face the elements. They had to learn the changes of the seasons
based on the sun, moon, and starts. Religious beliefs on the life cycle included birth,
growth death, and regenerated life.
The Neolithic Revolution also reflected gender roles. Men were working in the fields and
herding animals, which required them to be outside the home.
Women preformed such jobs such as caring for the children, weaving cloth, and other
homely jobs. Over time, the work outside the home seemed more important, and
therefore males began to take a more dominant role in the gender relationship.
In Neolithic villages, three main craft industries developed: pottery, metallurgy, and
The earliest metal utilized was copper.
Around 3000 BCE, Mesopotamian metalworkers used alloys to make bronze. Bronze was
used as swords, spears axes, shields, armor, and plows for farming
Around 1000 BCE, iron tools were introduced in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Egypt, and
The origin of the wheel is unknown, but we do know that the Sumerians used wheeled
carts. The wheel turned into the standard means of transport after spreading like wildfire.
Not everyone became a farmer during the Neolithic Revolution. Instead there was
A lifestyle that depended in their herd for survival and traveled to
find grassland or steppe land required to graze. These people had difficult lives and
learned military tactics to defend their herd.
Farming communities often developed along river banks. As the rivers flooded and
carried silt onto the land, the land became more fertile. Rivers served as a means for
transportation and communication. Flood control and irrigation projects were soon
The cooperation of people to control the rivers led to the development of the first urban
centers (cities) These cities were large, densely populated, and had many permanent
settlements, all of which have many aspects in common.