BIO test 2

BIO test 2 - BIO test 2 1. Distinguish prokaryotes from...

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BIO test 2 1. Distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes. 1. Pro 1.1. All are unicellular 1.2. Divide by binary fission, not mitosis 1.3. DNA is often circular, not in a nucleus 1.4. No membrane-enclosed organelles 1.5. Can form complex biofilms 1.6. Cell size -Most are less than 1 mm in diameter 1.7. Chromosome -Single circular double-stranded DNA -Found in nucleoid region 1.8. Internal compartmentalization -No membrane-bounded organelles! 1.9. Flagella -Simple in structure; spin like propellers 1.10. Cell division -Most divide by binary fission 1.11. Genetic recombination -Occurs through horizontal gene transfer 1.12. NO EUKARYOTE do this 1.12.1. Metabolic diversity -Unlike eukaryotes, two types of photosynthesis 1.12.2. - Oxygenic = Produces oxygen 1.12.3. - Anoxygenic = Nonoxygen producing 1.12.4. - Chemolithotrophic prokaryotes derive energy from inorganic molecules 2. Eukaryote 2.1. eukaryote genes are most closely related to those of archaea 2. Compare and contrast archae bacteria with bacteria. Cell wall -Bacteria have peptidoglycan -Archaea lack peptidoglycan Antibiotics target peptidoglycan - because eukaryote cells don’t have it, thus there is no harm to human cells. DNA replication and Gene Expression -Archaea - more similar to that of eukaryotes Baterial cell wall consists of peptidoglycan – polysaccharides cross-linked with peptides 3. Identify structure and function of bacterial components. Pili -Short, hairlike structures -Found in Gram-negative bacteria -Aid in attachment and conjugation Flagella -Long, helical structures -Composed of the protein flagellin -Involved in locomotion Nucleoid region -Contains the single, circular chromosome -May also contain plasmids
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course BIO 136 taught by Professor Bessert during the Fall '11 term at Wisc Stout.

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BIO test 2 - BIO test 2 1. Distinguish prokaryotes from...

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