Notes-Part 1 - The Glory That Was Greece: Lecture Outlines...

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The Glory That Was Greece: Lecture Outlines for Part I (The Earliest Greeks) PLEASE NOTE: these outlines are meant to helporganize note-taking and to remember dates, names and concept. The outlines do not cover all the material in the lectures or on the quizzes and exams, and are not substitutes for attending class and taking notes. 1.1 Ancient Greece in Context Greece and the Mediterranean location and physical geography -settlements near shore, islands, peninsulas -the sea=lifeblood of Greece ancient and modern (shipping) -land=mountainous -75% overall; interior separated by valleys>fosters regionalism -few rivers, non-navigable (contrast Egypt, Rome) natural resources -cultivated (only 30% suited for agriculture) -timber & game (in antiquity) -#1 is central location: access to trade routes crops and livestock ; olives, grapes, grain; goats, cattle -agricultural limited (when population increased) neighbors -South and East: Egypt, near east=advanced, city based -North and West: =less advanced, agrarian cultures Pre-Historical Context 4-300,000 BP (Before Present): earliest evidence of hominid activity in Greece 200,000-40,000 BP (Middle Palaeolithic): Neanderthals in Europe; earliest burials in Greece 100-40,000: emergence of MODERN HUMANS (Cro-Magnons) 40,000-13,000 BP (Upper Palaeolithic): last Ice Age; HUNTING CULTURE 9000 (in Near East)-3000 BCE (northwest Europe): NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION emergence of agriculture-dependent societies, first towns 6500 BCE: agricultural societies in Greece 2000 BCE: earliest Greek-speakers in Greece (?) 1.2 The Minoans: The Pre-Greek Population of Crete Re-discovery of Minoan Crete (1899) Crete in later Greek mythology -old, mysterious region -birthplace of Zeus, origin of judges in underworld -distinctive culture-prox of Egypt -Minotaur myths: mistrust by the other Greeks Birth of modern archaeology (Arthur Evans) -earlier archaeology: haphazard, focused on removable artifacts -Arthur Evans: attempts to rediscover entire culture (1899) Scientific methods-grid, catalog everything, stratigraphy Focus on elites-most visible remains (mostly the remains of wealthy/biggest things), most like archaeologists today Overview of Minoans origin of name (Minos, mythical king of Knossos) -“Minoan” the modern name main sites: Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia civilization: Neolithic(7000BCE) > Bronze Age(1100) - follows cues from Egypt, Near East language: unknown but known was not Greek
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Rough overall timeline circa 7000: earliest human habitation of Crete (Neolithic) c3500: beginnings of Minoan cities c3000: acquisition of Bronze Age technology c2500-2000: Pre-Palatial period c2000-1600: Old Palace period -Knossos main site (15000+ population) by around 1800: Linear A script (apparently administrative uses only) 1600: destruction and rebuilding of palaces (possible causes) c1600-1400: New Palace Period -immediate rebuilding on same site as Old Palace -high point of Minoan culture c1400-1100: Final Palace Period (Linear B script = Greek)
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Notes-Part 1 - The Glory That Was Greece: Lecture Outlines...

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