Notes-Part 3 - The Glory That Was Greece Lecture Outlines...

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The Glory That Was Greece: Lecture Outlines Part 3: Classical Greece Quiz 6 3.1. Greece vs. Persia The Persian (Achaemenid) Empire (ca. 550-300 BCE) multi-ethnic state stretching from Europe & Africa to India -empire: demand goods & manpower, provide protection, stability -homeland in Asia (Achaemenid dynasty) -successor of ancient Near Eastern empires -major expansion: 6th century BCE under kings Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius Babylon, Syria, Phoenicia-Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Asia Minor and Aegean 6 th century BCE: expansion under kinds Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius -control: Asia Minor, Babylon, Syria, Phoenicia-Palestine, Egypt, Libya -extension of power into Aegean: conflict with Greeks (Ionia) -capital Persepolis, sub capitals ( Babylon, Sardis..) -palaces: store tribute, garrisons, administration (records) -road system connects empire (troop movements, trade) Persian government -roles of the “Great King” General, head of bureaucracy, religious authority Extended royal family holds top positions Constant travel among capitals, to wars -realm divided into administrative districts 20 “satrapies” rueld by “satraps” Persian governors) Institutions of subject peoples retained -standing royal army of 10,000 (1000 kinsman personal guard for king) -satrapal & subject armies make up bulk of forces (100,000 +) Tributary fleets: Cyrus, Egypt; Phoenicia, Ioninan Greek -balancing act: Greek poleis-non Greek states- Persian empire Ex: Croesus, last king of Lydia Persians support Ionian Greek tyrants ( ex: Polykrates of Samos) Mainland Greeks not much involved (Sparta, Athens) Relations between Greece and Persia to 490 BCE -balancing act: Greek poleis-non Greek states- Persian empire Ex: Croesus, last king of Lydia Persians support Ionian Greek tyrants ( ex: Polykrates of Samos) Mainland Greeks not much involved (Sparta, Athens) -Ionian Rebellion (499-494) Motivations: tribute, incompetence of pro-Persian tyrant regimes Sparta refuses to help ( unsophisticated foreign policy) Athens helps (burning of Persian provincial capital Sardis) 949: revolt crushed, Gk tyrants replaces with direct t Persian control -Darius abortive attack on Greece (492): pretext of Sardis 492: attack fleet drviven back by storm Seek submission of Greek poleis (symbolic token of earth & water to stop fighting) Many comply (“Medizers”); others prepare for invasion Greece vs. Persia, Round 1: Marathon (490 BCE) -Greek preparations Athens: archon Themistokles rallies support for defense Sparta: threatens Greeks who Medize (Thebes, Aigina) -summer 490: Darius sends fleet to re0install Hippias in Athens Spartans refuse Athenian call for help (reason/ pretext) Pheidippides/Philippides marathon: 149 miles/ 2 days, then 26 more -Battle of Marathon -Persiand bring fleet to Marathon in 490BC Athenians lef by (probably_ Militiades face Persians on shore
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Classic retreating middle into pincer formation Defeated Persians abandon campaign Athenian claim: 6400 Persians, 192 Greeks die in battle The Interwar Years (490-480) -Persian preparations for Round 2 486: Darius I > Xerxes (consolidates power, revolt in Egypt) 485: preparations for invasion of Greece led by Xerxes himself -Athenian preparations
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