Notes-Part 4 - The Glory That Was Greece Lecture Outlines...

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The Glory That Was Greece Lecture Outlines Part 4: Hellenistic to Byzantine Greece 1. Alexander and the Spread of Greek Culture Ancient Macedon -unstable and relatively insignificant kingdom before 4 th century BCE -not considered completely Greek by other Greeks (dialect, customs) “Medizers” during Persian Invasion -distinctive culture: dialect, burials, unmixed wine, royal polygamy Powerful monarcy based on personal allegiance Warrior aristocracy loyal to king (not state, laws, etc. .) Philip II of Macedon (ca. 382-336 BCE) -early years Son and bother of kings Spends time with Epaminondas in Thebes (369-7 BCE) Becomes kin in 360 after death of brother in battle Expands control of NW Aegean -reforms Goal: stabilize archaic Macedonian government and army Macedonian phalanx: longer spears, looser ranks Expands warrior aristocracy -take over of Greece: 3 rd Sacred War (356-46): Athens vs. Thebes over Delphi Phillip II sides with Thebes, defeats Athenian-backed forces Extends territy south to THermopylai -vs. Athens Major Greek power again after Sparta, Thebes fade Alies with Olynthos, which Philip II destroys (348 BCe) Athenians fail to unite Greece against Macedon Demosthenes: Athenian orator opposes Philip II Negotiates, then gives up on peace (346) 4 th Sacred War: Philip again uses Delphi as excuse to invade Athens and Thebes unite against Macedon Battle of Chaironeia (338 bce): crushing defeat of Athens and Thebes Beginning of the end for the era of free poleis -Philip II after Chaironeia Corinthian League: attempt to legitimize Macedonian control of Greece Promise: lead “free Greeks” against Persia Reality: basis for Macedonian Empire Summer 336 BCe: assassination of Philip II Opposition from within MACedoanian aristocracy Alexander III (The Great) of Macedon (356-323) -early years Son of Philip Ii and main wife Olympia’s Tutored by Aristotle Successful teenage general (Chaironeia) Consolidation of power (336-34 BCE) Purge of royal family after Philip II’s death Crushed revolts in north and in Greece -invasion of Asia Persians take the offensive, defeated at Battle of Granikos (334 BCE) Greeks fail to turn against Alexander Alexander sweeps through Ionia (receives “contributions”) Ionian Greeks finally freed from Persian domination -invasion of Western Asia Leads army around Mediterranean Battles of Issos (333) in NW tip of Mediterranean
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Persian royal family captured King Dareios (Darius) III flees east -eastern Mediterranean (332-1) Destruction of Tyre and Gaza puts end to resistance Onward to Egypt: Persian satrap surrenders without fight Alexander identifies himself with pharaohs, local gods Founds Egyptian Alexandria -conquest of Asia (331-30) Returns to Asia. Purses Dareios Battle of Gaugamela (331): Greek victory, but Dareios escapes Alexander assumes title of Persian king Baktria and Sogdiana (modern Afghanistan) conquered with difficulty MAcedoians becming dissatisfied with Alexander Marriage to Bactran princess Roxane Behaving like a Persian king
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course CLA 2100 taught by Professor Marks during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

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Notes-Part 4 - The Glory That Was Greece Lecture Outlines...

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