EGN3365-11 - Chapter 11 Metal Alloys Applications and...

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Chapter 11 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS... How are metal alloys classified and how are they used? What are some of the common fabrication techniques? How do properties vary throughout a piece of material that has been quenched, for example? How can properties be modified by post heat treatment? Chapter 11: Metal Alloys Applications and Processing
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Chapter 11 - 2 Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister 7e . (Fig. 9.24 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.) Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister 7e . Taxonomy of Metals Metal Alloys Steels Ferrous Nonferrous Cast Irons Cu Al Mg Ti <1.4wt%C 3-4.5wt%C Steels <1.4wt%C Cast Irons 3-4.5wt%C Fe 3 C cementite 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7 L γ austenite γ + L γ +Fe 3 C α ferrite α +Fe 3 C α + γ L +Fe 3 C δ (Fe) C o , wt% C Eutectic: Eutectoid: 0.76 4.30 727°C 1148°C T (°C) microstructure: ferrite, graphite cementite
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Chapter 11 - 3 Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister 7e . Steels Low Alloy High Alloy low carbon <0.25wt%C Med carbon 0.25-0.6wt%C high carbon 0.6-1.4wt%C Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels crank shafts bolts hammers blades pistons gears wear applic. wear applic. drills saws dies high T applic. turbines furnaces V. corros. resistant Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304 Additions none Cr,V Ni, Mo none Cr, Ni Mo none Cr, V, Mo, W Cr, Ni, Mo plain HSLA plain heat treatable plain tool austenitic stainless Name Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ +++ 0 TS - 0 + ++ + ++ 0 EL + + 0 - - -- ++ increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility
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Chapter 11 - 4 Refinement of Steel from Ore Iron Ore Coke Limestone 3CO+ Fe 2 O 3 2Fe +3CO 2 C + O 2 CO 2 CO 2 + C 2CO CaCO 3 CaO+CO 2 CaO + SiO 2 + Al 2 O 3 slag purification reduction of iron ore to metal heat generation Molten iron BLAST FURNACE slag air layers of coke and iron ore gas refractory vessel
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Chapter 11 - 5 Ferrous Alloys Iron containing – Steels - cast irons Nomenclature AISI & SAE 10xx Plain Carbon Steels 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (10 ~ 20%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.4 - 0.90%), Mo (0.2 - 0.3%) 44xx Mo (0.5%) where xx is wt% C x 100 example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel -- >11% Cr
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Chapter 11 - 6 Cast Iron Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C – more commonly 3 - 4.5 wt%C low melting (also brittle) so easiest to cast Cementite decomposes to ferrite + graphite Fe 3 C barb2right 3 Fe ( α ) + C (graphite) – generally a slow process
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Chapter 11 - 7 Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram Graphite formation promoted by Si > 1 wt% slow cooling Adapted from Fig. 11.2, Callister 7e . (Fig. 11.2 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.- in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 1 2 3 4 90 L γ + L α + Graphite Liquid + Graphite (Fe) C o , wt% C 0.65 740°C T (°C) γ + Graphite 100 1153°C γ Austenite 4.2 wt% C α + γ
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Chapter 11 - 8 Types of Cast Iron Gray iron graphite flakes weak & brittle under tension stronger under compression excellent vibrational dampening wear resistant Ductile iron add Mg or Ce graphite in nodules not flakes matrix often pearlite - better ductility Adapted from Fig. 11.3(a) & (b), Callister 7e .
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