chap7_2010

chap7_2010 - Chapter 7 Quality Tools Which tool is best?...

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Chapter 7 Quality Tools
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Which tool is best? Tools can serve as the backbone for virtually any type of quality improvement effort (Six Sigma, TQM, 8D) Graphical representations of data help us understand the true importance of data. There is no single one-size fits all solution. Every project and problem is different.
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Diagnostic Tools Graphical Tools: Histogram Boxplots Probability distribution plots Main-effects plots Pareto charts Run charts Multi-Vari charts Time-series plots Scatter plots Analytical Tools: Cause-Effect (CE) diagram Failure mode-effects Analysis (FMEA) XY matrix Affinity diagram Fault tree analysis (FTA)
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Diagnostic Tools Graphical Rep. of Process: Process flow charts Process mapping Cross-functional mapping Deployment diagram Supplier-input-process- output-customer (SIPOC) diagram Input-process-output (IPO) diagram Force-field analysis Other Tools: Checksheets Scorecards
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Problem Definition A good problem definition will include quantified information about the problem, the magnitude of the problem, the baseline, and the gap remaining to reach a benchmark or desired state Be Specific Use declarative format – Quantify – Be factual Example of poor problem definition: “Reduce restorable time for severity 1 telephone banking problems, focusing on human errors as root cause” Example of good problem definition: “Reduce restorable time from 51% per month for severity 1 telephone banking problems to 30% or less per month by the third quarter of this year, resulting in annual savings of $4.5M”
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Y = f (x) The transfer equation of Y= f (x) where X =x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ,…,x n recognizes that a causal relationship exits in any process of action performed. Y is a function of one or many x’s where Y is the dependent variable and the x’s are independent variables. X can equal quality, delivery time, cost of the product. Therefore Critical to Satisfaction refers to any variable that has significant influence on one of more of the determinants of customer satisfaction. » Pareto principal suggests that 80% of the of the total error or variance will be caused by 20% of the variables. These are the “vital few”, while the remaining are the “trivial many”. The key is to identify these vital few. x 1 x 2 x 3 . . . . x n Uncontrollable variables or factors (noise) Inputs Process Process . . .
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Critical-to (CT) Definitions Critical-to-Satisfaction (CTS) characteristics – expression of the customer’s vital needs. Critical-to-Quality (CTQ) characteristics- the product, service and/or transactional characteristics that significantly influence one or more CTS in terms of quality. Critical-to-Delivery (CTD) characteristics-
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chap7_2010 - Chapter 7 Quality Tools Which tool is best?...

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