chap22_2010

chap22_2010 - Chapter 22 Design of Experiments Experiments...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 22 Design of Experiments Experiments • Experiment: A study in which certain independent variables are manipulated, their effect on one or more dependent variables is determined, and the levels (values) of these independent variables are assigned at random to the experimental units in study. • Trial and Error Experiments – Lack direction and focus – Waste valuable resources – May never reach optimal solution Design of Experiments (DOE) • Design of Experiment: A method of experimenting with the complex interactions among parameters in a process or product. – It provides a layout of the different factors and the values at which those factors are to be tested. – It is useful to identify the effects of hidden variables Design of Experiments (DOE) Terminology • Factor: A factor is an input variable that can be manipulated during the experiment (e.g., temperature) • Level : A level is one of the settings available for a factor (e.g., level 1 = 120F, level 2 = 150F) – Qualitative factors : levels vary by category – Quantitative factors : levels vary by numerical degree – Fixed levels: levels are set at specified values – Random levels: levels are randomly selected from all possible values Design of Experiments (DOE) Terminology • Response variable : The variable(s) of interest used to describe the reaction of a process to variations in control variables (factors) • Effect: The effect is the change exhibited by he response variable when the factor level is changed – Main Effect – Interactions : Two or more factors that together produce a result different than what the result of their separate effects would be Design of Experiments (DOE) Terminology • Experimental Unit: The entity to which a specific treatment combination is applied (e.g. PC board, silicon wafer) • Blocking: A schedule for conducting treatment combinations in an experimental study such that any effects on the experimental results due to a known change (e.g. raw materials, operators, machines, etc.) become concentrated in the levels of the blocking variable (e.g. shift) Design of Experiments (DOE) Terminology • Treatment: The specific combination of levels for each factor used for a particular run • Run: An experimental trail, the application of one treatment • Replicate : Repeat of the treatment condition • Repetition : Multiple runs of a particular treatment condition Design of Experiments (DOE) Terminology • Noise Factor : An uncontrollable, but measurable, source of variation in the function characteristics of a process or a product • Confounding factor: A factor’s effect on the dependent variable cannot be distinguished from the effect of the independent variable. X and Y are confounded when there is a third variable Z that influences both X and Y; such a variable is then called a confounder of X and Y....
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chap22_2010 - Chapter 22 Design of Experiments Experiments...

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