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Chinese as a heritage language

Chinese as a heritage language - Instructor Dr Agnes He...

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Unformatted text preview: Instructor: Dr. Agnes He Time: Mon. & Fri. 12:50 -2:10 p.m. Place: Engineering 145 Office hour: MWF 10:45-11:45 Office: HUM 1116; Tel.: 632-1096 Email: [email protected] AAS 220 China: Language and Culture “Speaking in tongues” (excerpts) Chinese as a heritage language Chinese as an international language Outline CHL has been taught and learned for as long as the Chinese American experience itself. As early as the 19th century, Cantonese classes were offered to children of early immigrants residing in Chinatowns in a number of larger US cities such as San Francisco and New York. Today, according to a 2005 Asia Society report (http://www.internationaled.org/expandingchine se.htm), 150,000 students are taking Chinese (primarily Mandarin) in community-based language schools nationwide. Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) Valdés’ (2001:38): a language student who is raised in a home where a non-English target language is spoken and who speaks or at least understands the language and is to some degree bilingual in HL and in English. Fishman (2001:169): a particular family relevance Rampton (1995): varying expertise and allegiance Norton (2000): varying degrees of investment Hornberger (2004): a bicultural, biliteracy continuum He (2008): not merely to inherit one’s home language and maintain one’s heritage cultural identity but also to transform the home language (in terms of changes in dialect, script, accent, discourse norms, etc.) and recreate one’s identity (C)HL learners: a definition The third largest speaker population, only after English and Spanish. 2,879,636 in 2000 (1.02 % of the U.S. population); 1,645,472 persons in 1990; Chinese-speaking population in the U.S. Ten most common non-English languages in the U.S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 San Francisco, CA Queens, NY Brooklyn, NY Manhattan, NY Los Angeles, CA Honolulu, HI San Jose, CA Chicago, IL Oakland, CA Fremont, CA Alhambra, CA City and state Rank by Chinese population 31,099 31,517 34,253 34,370 57,974 68,849 73,868 91,588 125,358 147,037 160,947 Number Chinese speakers 36.2% 15.5% 8.6% 1.2% 6.5% 18.5% 2.0% 6.0% 5.1% 6.6% 20.7% Percent Chinese of total population DBorough with Chinese American Population more than 30,000, Census 2000 emographics City or The First Wave (1840-1949) The Second Wave (1949-1979) The Third Wave (1979-present) Chinese immigration to the U.S. 1840-era California Gold Rush; (6) Viewed no opportunities in the new land (Koehn and Yin, 2002). (5) By 1870, there were 63,199 Chinese living in the U.S., out of which 78% resided in California (Chang, 2003:93); (4) Marginalized and congregated in Chinatowns in the western states and territories; (3) The Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 suspended the immigration of skilled and unskilled Chinese laborers for 10 years and prohibited the naturalization of any Chinese; (2) Mostly Cantonese-speaking peasants or fishermen by origin; (1) The First wave (1840-1949) (1) Spurred by the 1949 Communist revolution; (2) More educated and better off financially; (3) By 1980, there were 812,178 persons of Chinese origin (0.36% of the U.S. population) living in the U.S. (4) Viewed America as a land of promise. The Second Wave (1949-1979) (1) China’s economic reform in 1979 opened the door to the international world; (2) The normalization of U.S.-China relations made America the best choice; (3) By 2000, 2,879,636 Chinese living in the U.S. ; (4) By 2006, there were 98,307 Chinese-speaking students in the United States (17.38% of the world total); (5) Viewing America as a land of promise. The Third Wave (1979-present) China is one of the countries with the most influence on the U.S., China’s economy will grow to overtake both Britain and Japan within ten years, China will become as large as the U.S. economy within two decades or so. (Chicago Global Affairs Survey in 2006) 60% of Americans believe that Public presence of Chinese (1)Working language in the United Nations and one of the six languages used for the United Nations Juridical Yearbook 2000. (2) In California, Chinese is one of the non-English languages used for the publication of official state documents. (3)In 1997, the U.S. Library of Congress adopted the Chinese Romanization system--pinyin--for cataloging practices, bibliographic records, and online retrieval. (4)So far, fourteen U.S.-China Institutes and 40 Confucius Institutes have been established, and sixty more are being planned for the near future. Government The largest daily Chinese-language publication is World Journal . It employs more than 1,000 journalists, with a U.S. circulation of almost 300,000. Since 1850s, there were more than 100 Chinese newspapers and journals, most of which were written in Chinese script. Media CCTV4, Phoenix’s North America Chinese Channel (PSTV), KyLin (麒麟) TV, 新唐人 (New Chinese), South East TV (SETV). Chinese TV Channels and programs: China is second only to Canada in total volume of trade with the U.S. (http://www.census.gov/foreigntrade/statistics/highlights/toppartners.ht ml). China is now America’s second largest source of imports and fourth largest export market; Business 15.1 125.2 22.4 147.3 21.2 -103.1 % Change U.S. Imports % Change Total % Change U.S. Balance -124.0 22.7 180.8 21.7 152.4 28.5 28.4 2003 -162.0 28.0 231.4 29.1 196.7 22.2 34.7 2004 -201.6 23.3 285.3 23.8 243.5 20.5 41.8 2005 -232.5 20.2 343.0 18.2 287.8 32.1 55.2 2006 -57.8 18.8 85.9 19.3 71.4 15.5 14.5 Quarter 1, 2007 Sources: U.S. International Trade Commission, U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S. Census 2007 22.1 2002 U.S. Exports Year China's Trade with the United States ($ billion) By 2006, 33 of the U.S. states have established Chinese programs in elementary and secondary schools, with a total of 313 (College Board survey 2006). Total of 23,900 Chinese students in K-12 by 2002. Education 19,490 28,456 34,153 51,582 1990 1998 2002 2006 3.3 2.4 3.6 1.6 1.2 Percent of all foreign language enrollments Source: Enrollments in languages other than English in United States institutions of higher education, fall 2006, by MLA. 11,366 Number of Chinese students 1980 Year Chinese enrollments at the university level those above 18 years old used “mainly or only” English 47% of the time, while those under 18 used it 81% of the time (Bailey, 2004:274). Generational difference in language use: Data from the U.S. Census 2000 show that, out of the two million Chinese speakers 5 years and older in the U.S., the majority (70%) speak English “very well” or “well.” Chinese language shift The National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (Taiwanese and Hong Kong) The Chinese School Association in the United States (People's Republic of China). (3) These 600 community CHL schools are no longer isolated entities but well-organized led by two non-profit organizations in recent years: (2) Students’ learning in CHL schools is now accredited by some mainstream schools, esp. in California. (1) As of 2004, there were approximately 600 community CHL schools across the country enrolling 160,000 students (McGinnis, 2005). Chinese community effort ...
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