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Unformatted text preview: Instructor: Dr. Agnes He
Time: Mon. & Fri. 12:50 -2:10 p.m.
Place: Engineering 145
Office hour: MWF 10:45-11:45
Office: HUM 1116; Tel.: 632-1096
Email: Agnes.He@sunysb.edu AAS 220
Language and Culture “Speaking in tongues” (excerpts)
Chinese as a heritage language
Chinese as an international language Outline CHL has been taught and learned for as long as
the Chinese American experience itself.
As early as the 19th century, Cantonese classes
were offered to children of early immigrants
residing in Chinatowns in a number of larger US
cities such as San Francisco and New York.
Today, according to a 2005 Asia Society report
se.htm), 150,000 students are taking Chinese
(primarily Mandarin) in community-based
language schools nationwide. Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) Valdés’ (2001:38): a language student who is raised in
a home where a non-English target language is spoken
and who speaks or at least understands the language
and is to some degree bilingual in HL and in English.
Fishman (2001:169): a particular family relevance
Rampton (1995): varying expertise and allegiance
Norton (2000): varying degrees of investment
Hornberger (2004): a bicultural, biliteracy continuum
He (2008): not merely to inherit one’s home language
and maintain one’s heritage cultural identity but also
to transform the home language (in terms of changes
in dialect, script, accent, discourse norms, etc.) and recreate one’s identity (C)HL learners: a definition The third largest speaker population, only
after English and Spanish. 2,879,636 in 2000 (1.02 % of the U.S.
population); 1,645,472 persons in 1990; Chinese-speaking population
in the U.S. Ten most common non-English languages in the U.S. 1
11 San Francisco, CA Queens, NY Brooklyn, NY Manhattan, NY Los Angeles, CA Honolulu, HI San Jose, CA Chicago, IL Oakland, CA Fremont, CA Alhambra, CA City and state Rank by Chinese
population 31,099 31,517 34,253 34,370 57,974 68,849 73,868 91,588 125,358 147,037 160,947 Number Chinese
speakers 36.2% 15.5% 8.6% 1.2% 6.5% 18.5% 2.0% 6.0% 5.1% 6.6% 20.7% Percent Chinese of total
population DBorough with Chinese American Population more than 30,000, Census 2000
City or The First Wave (1840-1949)
The Second Wave (1949-1979)
The Third Wave (1979-present) Chinese immigration to the U.S. 1840-era California Gold Rush; (6) Viewed no opportunities in the new land (Koehn and Yin, 2002). (5) By 1870, there were 63,199 Chinese living in the U.S., out of which 78%
resided in California (Chang, 2003:93); (4) Marginalized and congregated in Chinatowns in the western states and
territories; (3) The Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 suspended the immigration of
skilled and unskilled Chinese laborers for 10 years and prohibited the
naturalization of any Chinese; (2) Mostly Cantonese-speaking peasants or fishermen by origin; (1) The First wave (1840-1949) (1) Spurred by the 1949 Communist
(2) More educated and better off financially;
(3) By 1980, there were 812,178 persons of
Chinese origin (0.36% of the U.S.
population) living in the U.S.
(4) Viewed America as a land of promise. The Second Wave (1949-1979) (1) China’s economic reform in 1979 opened the door
to the international world;
(2) The normalization of U.S.-China relations made
America the best choice;
(3) By 2000, 2,879,636 Chinese living in the U.S. ;
(4) By 2006, there were 98,307 Chinese-speaking
students in the United States (17.38% of the
(5) Viewing America as a land of promise. The Third Wave (1979-present) China is one of the countries with the most
influence on the U.S.,
China’s economy will grow to overtake both
Britain and Japan within ten years,
China will become as large as the U.S.
economy within two decades or so.
(Chicago Global Affairs Survey in 2006) 60% of Americans believe that Public presence of Chinese (1)Working language in the United Nations and one of
the six languages used for the United Nations
Juridical Yearbook 2000.
(2) In California, Chinese is one of the non-English
languages used for the publication of official state
(3)In 1997, the U.S. Library of Congress adopted the
Chinese Romanization system--pinyin--for
cataloging practices, bibliographic records, and
(4)So far, fourteen U.S.-China Institutes and 40
Confucius Institutes have been established, and
sixty more are being planned for the near future. Government The largest daily Chinese-language
publication is World Journal . It employs
more than 1,000 journalists, with a U.S.
circulation of almost 300,000. Since 1850s, there were more than 100
Chinese newspapers and journals, most of
which were written in Chinese script. Media CCTV4,
Phoenix’s North America Chinese Channel
KyLin (麒麟) TV,
新唐人 (New Chinese),
South East TV (SETV). Chinese TV Channels and programs: China is second only to Canada in total
volume of trade with the U.S.
ml). China is now America’s second largest
source of imports and fourth largest export
market; Business 15.1 125.2 22.4 147.3 21.2 -103.1 % Change U.S. Imports % Change Total % Change U.S. Balance -124.0 22.7 180.8 21.7 152.4 28.5 28.4 2003 -162.0 28.0 231.4 29.1 196.7 22.2 34.7 2004 -201.6 23.3 285.3 23.8 243.5 20.5 41.8 2005 -232.5 20.2 343.0 18.2 287.8 32.1 55.2 2006 -57.8 18.8 85.9 19.3 71.4 15.5 14.5 Quarter 1,
2007 Sources: U.S. International Trade Commission, U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S.
Census 2007 22.1 2002 U.S. Exports Year China's Trade with the United States ($ billion) By 2006, 33 of the U.S. states have
established Chinese programs in
elementary and secondary schools, with a
total of 313 (College Board survey 2006). Total of 23,900 Chinese students in K-12
by 2002. Education 19,490
51,582 1990 1998 2002 2006 3.3 2.4 3.6 1.6 1.2 Percent of all foreign
language enrollments Source: Enrollments in languages other than English in United States institutions of higher
education, fall 2006, by MLA. 11,366 Number of
Chinese students 1980 Year Chinese enrollments at the university
level those above 18 years old used “mainly or only”
English 47% of the time, while those under 18
used it 81% of the time (Bailey, 2004:274). Generational difference in language use: Data from the U.S. Census 2000 show that, out of
the two million Chinese speakers 5 years and
older in the U.S., the majority (70%) speak
English “very well” or “well.” Chinese language shift The National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools
(Taiwanese and Hong Kong)
The Chinese School Association in the United States (People's
Republic of China). (3) These 600 community CHL schools are no longer isolated entities but
well-organized led by two non-profit organizations in recent years: (2) Students’ learning in CHL schools is now accredited by some
mainstream schools, esp. in California. (1) As of 2004, there were approximately 600 community CHL schools
across the country enrolling 160,000 students (McGinnis, 2005). Chinese community effort ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course AAS 250 taught by Professor Karemel during the Spring '11 term at University of Leeds.
- Spring '11