Acid - Base Flowchart 2011

Acid - Base Flowchart 2011 - Chemical Species Yes ...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemical Species Yes Yes Concentration > 10 ­6 M Yes pH = pKa + Log [ Weak Acid or Base Yes Buffer No Acid: pH =  ­ Log [H+] Base: pOH =  ­ Log [OH ­ No Strong Acid or Base Monoprotic Species No A −] No [HA] Polyprotic Species *A ­ is the conjugate base of HA Yes Concentration: 10 ­6 M  ­ 10 ­8 M € Yes Yes No Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium Buffer: Select correct pKa and conjugate acid ­base pair. Weak Acid No + [H ]approx ≈ Concentration < 10 ­8 M Yes Yes No K aCa Yes OR [H + ]2 x2 Ka = = C a − [H + ] C a − x Yes pH = 7.00 No Weak Base € Yes − [OH ]approx ≈ Fully Protonated Form: Teat as a monoprotic weak acid. Fully Deprotonated Form: Treat as a monoprotic weak base. K bC b OR No [OH − ]2 x2 Kb = = C b − [OH − ] C b − x Intermediate Species OR € Diprotic intermediate species (e.g., HCO3 ­) OR first triprotic intermediate species (e.g., H2PO4 ­) [H+ ] = Ka1Ka2 F + Ka1Kw Ka1 + F Second triprotic intermediate species (e.g., HPO42 ­) [H + ] = K a2K a3F + K a2K w K a2 + F ...
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