dodder - ITS and Air Quality A Critical Look April 6 2005...

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Unformatted text preview: ITS and Air Quality A Critical Look April 6, 2005 1.212 Introduction to ITS Professor Joseph Sussman Rebecca S. Dodder Doctoral Candidate, Technology, Management and Policy Engineering Systems Division, MIT Rebecca S. Dodder 2 of 43 Outline • Is ITS good or bad for air quality? – Which ITS applications have been shown to affect air quality, and how ? – Are there ITS applications specifically oriented toward air quality, energy use, and the environment? – When deploying multiple ITS services, how can one assess the overall air quality impacts? – What does this all mean for ITS Architectures? Rebecca S. Dodder 3 of 43 Outline • Is ITS good or bad for air quality? – Which ITS applications have been shown to affect air quality, and how ? – Are there ITS applications specifically oriented toward air quality, energy use, and the environment? – When deploying multiple ITS services, how can one assess the overall air quality impacts? – What does this all mean for ITS Architectures? Rebecca S. Dodder 4 of 43 ATMS (recurrent congestion) • Reductions are possible from reduced congestion and smoother traffic flows • Higher speeds may increase or reduce emissions, depending upon the pollutant • In the short to medium term, increasing the effective capacity, and thus the volume of vehicles, may worsen localized air quality • Long-term increases in trip-making and higher VMT may negate early benefits at a regional level Rebecca S. Dodder 5 of 43 ATMS (non-recurrent congestion) • Reductions are possible from reduced congestion and smoother traffic flows • May be able to minimize the negative “side effects” of reducing recurrent congestion • Increased reliability • Often more effective when coupled with ATIS-based strategies Rebecca S. Dodder 6 of 43 ATIS • Improved route information may reduce emissions – Individual: more efficient trip-chaining – Network: congestion reduction • Could increase VMT by re-rerouting to longer- distance but faster routes • Could decrease VMT by re-rerouting to shorter routes (arterials versus freeways) • May increase overall travel through changes in trip- making behavior, such as more non-peak travel or peak spreading • Net impact depends on VMT and emission rates Rebecca S. Dodder 7 of 43 APTS • Emissions may be reduced through greater use of public transportation rather than private auto use – Improved operations – Improved perception & comfort • Operational improvements may reduce emissions from the transit vehicle fleet Rebecca S. Dodder 8 of 43 CVO • Improve fleet operations may reduce number of vehicles required for given freight movements • May reduce impact on congestion in urban areas by avoiding particular routes or hours • Permits closer monitoring of vehicle performance, fuel use, and emissions Rebecca S. Dodder 9 of 43 AVCS • Can be used for more efficient driving (e.g., less aggressive accelerations and stops) • Advanced Highway Systems face same issues at ATMS - could dramatically increase effective capacity, leading to increased emissions Rebecca S. DodderRebecca S....
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dodder - ITS and Air Quality A Critical Look April 6 2005...

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