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Unformatted text preview: Working With Graphs 1 Graphs In General:
A graph is a visual representation of the relationship between two or more variables.
We will deal with just two variables at a time. 2 Graphs In General:
1. Independent variable: This is the variable that influences the dependent variable. (X variable)
2. Dependent variable: Its value is determined by the independent variable. (Y variable)
3 Graphs In General:
3. We say that the dependent variable is a function of the independent variable:
Y = f(X) 4 The Axis of a Graph: Dependent Variable (Yaxis) Independent Variable (Xaxis) 5 Direct Relationships:
y A person's weight and height are often related. y If we sample 1000 people and measure their weight and height we would probably find that as weight increases so does height. 6 Direct Relationships:
7 Direct Relationships:
y y There is a direct relationship between height and weight.
Have a direct relationship when: ↑ indep. variable ⇒ dep. variable ↑ ↓ indep. variable ⇒ dep. variable ↓
indep. variable 8 Inverse Relationships:
There is strong evidence indicating that as price rises for a specific commodity, the amount purchased decreases. 9 Inverse Relationships:
Price per Unit
Curve Quantity Purchase per Unit Time
10 Inverse Relationships:
y y There is an inverse relationship between price per unit and the quantity purchased per unit of time.
Have an inverse relationship when: (1) indep. variable ↑ ⇒ ↓ dep. variable
(2) indep. variable ↓ ⇒ ↑ dep. variable
dep. variable 11 Complex Relationships:
y Evidence suggests that income from wages increases up to a certain age, and then decreases until death. 12 Complex Relationships:
Income from Wages ($) Age
13 Complex Relationships:
y y There is a direct relationship between wage income and age up to a certain point known as retirement,
then an inverse relationship exists from retirement to the individuals expiration date.
14 Complex Relationships:
Income from All Sources ($) Age
15 Complex Relationships:
Income from All Sources ($) Age
16 Complex Relationships:
Income from All Sources ($)
the slope of
this line be
equal to at the
17 Social Security Issues:
Social Security was NEVER intended to provide benefits sufficient to be the sole source of retirement income. 18 Social Security Issues:
Current “Social Security” tax rate: 7.65 percent
OASDI TAX: Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance. The 2000 rate of tax is 6.2 percent to a taxable wage limit of $76,200. The maximum tax an employee may pay is $4,501.20 19 Social Security Issues:
HI TAX: Federal Hospital Insurance. The 2000 rate of tax is 1.45 percent without a wage limit. The maximum tax is therefore unlimited
20 Social Security Issues:
y y Social Security covered 58 percent of the work force in 1940, covered over 90 percent in 1990.
Over this 50 yr. period, REAL benefits have increased and coverage has been extended to spouses, widows, and dependents.
21 Social Security Issues:
y Today, elderly as a group have lower poverty rates than the general population, and about the same per capita income. 22 Social Security Issues:
Greater than 90 percent of all persons 65 or older receive Social Security.
y On average, SS equals 38 percent of total income received by elderly households.
y y For 25 percent of older households, SS equals 90 percent of family income. 23 Social Security Issues:
y y For 15 percent of older households, SS equals 100 percent of family income.
To maintain preretirement living standards, middle and upper income households must have additional income from employer pensions or private savings
24 Historical Social Security Tax Rates:
Before 1950, SS rate = 1.0 percent paid by both the employer and employee. y This covered retirement only, no disability or Medicare.
y Maximum earnings taxed prior to 1950 = $3,000
y Maximum tax paid prior to 1950 = $30 per employee, $30 per employer
y 25 Historical Social Security Tax Rates:
y y y In 1970, the maximum retirement tax paid was $284.70. Matched by employer.
In 1990, SS retirement tax rate = 5.60 percent, Maximum earnings taxed in 1991 = $51,300
Maximum tax paid in 1991 = $2,872.80 per employee. Matched by employer 26 Historical Social Security Tax Rates:
y y In 2000, SS retirement tax rate = 5.30 percent, Maximum earnings taxed in 2000 = $76,200
Maximum tax paid in 2000 = $4,038.60 per employee. Matched by employer 27 Future of Social Security
y Funds in the SS trust fund will peak in 2030 at $12 trillion (no cash, all gov. bonds!) y I will be 73 years old. y You will be ? years old.
28 Future of Social Security
y y y After 2030, these trust fund assets decrease rapidly, and will be equal to zero in 2046 at the current SS tax rates.
In 2046, I probably will be in a state of mind such that I won't care!
You will be ? years old. 29 Future of Social Security
y y As the population of our country continues to age, the ratio of (workers / beneficiaries) will decrease.
The W/B ratio is expected to remain stable between 1989 and 2010 but will then decrease.
30 Future of Social Security Year 2010 2020
> 2020 W/B "Baby Boomers" start
3.5 hitting 65 in 2010
2.1 31 Future of Social Security
y Building up the trust fund NOW will reduce the expected tax burden on future workers (YOU) by making Baby Boomers (ME) pay higher taxes to partially finance their own retirement benefits. 32 Constructing A Graph
We start with a horizontal number line: 33 Constructing A Graph
1. The points on the line divide the line into segments.
2. All the line segments are equally spaced
3. Numbers associated with the points increase in value from left to right.
4. Use a distance, so many points, to represent a quantity.
34 Constructing A Graph 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1012345678 35 Add a Vertical Number Line: 1. Construct a vertical number line. 2. Points divide the line into equal segments. 3. Numbers associated with points increase in value from the bottom to top. 4. The scale can be different from the horizontal number line.
36 Add a Vertical Number Line:
4 37 To Make A Graph:
1. The vertical and horizontal number lines must intersect at each others zero point. 2. They must be perpendicular. 0
38 To Make A Graph:
The vertical and horizontal number lines should look like the illustration below: 39 To Make A Graph:
3. Result: We get a set of coordinate axis, or a coordinate number system. e.g. Sighting in a rifle scope on the range. 40 How would you call
out the location
of this three shot group? X-Axis
Y-Axis 43 44 To Make A Graph:
4. With a graph, you need two numbers to specify a single point OR When you see a point on a graph, you know that point represents two numbers ! 45 BASICS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT GRAPHING AND THE COORDINATE NUMBER SYSTEM
y The vertical number line is reserved for the Dependent variable and is referred to as the Y AXIS. y The horizontal number line is referred to as the X AXIS and is reserved for the Independent variable.
46 The origin and points on the graph
y The point of intersection of the two number lines is referred to as
the ORIGIN. 47 Point A 3
3 Point A represents two numbers: A value for x and a value for y.
48 The origin and points on the graph
y Every point on a graph represents a pair of observations of x and y. (x,y) y In this class, y will often represent price and x will often represent quantity.
49 The Slope
1. Slope = change in Y values / change in X values = (y1 y0) / (x1 x0) = RISE / RUN 50 The Slope
( 2 ,8 ) ∗∗ 8 6 ( x0, y0) ( 3 ,6 ) 2 3 ( x1, y1) Quantity demanded per unit time 51 The Slope
2. As X goes from 2 to 3, Y goes from 8 to 6.
3. ∆ Y = RISE = (TO FROM) = 6 8 = 2
∆ X = RUN = (TO FROM) = 3 2 = 1
52 The Slope
4. SLOPE = ∆ Y / ∆ X = 2 / 1 = 2
5. The slope of a straight line is CONSTANT.
Class Exercise 53 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course ECON 101, 102, taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10