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Final Exam Assignment Part 2 & 3

Final Exam Assignment Part 2 & 3 - Part2#9-Peter...

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Part 2 #9-Peter Singer – A Utilitarian Defense of Animal Liberation Page 77: “To mark this boundary by some characteristic like intelligence or rationality would be to mark it in an arbitrary way.” The first quote is an implicit reference to Kant and his idea that rationality is a legitimate prerequisite for equality. Page 77: “In doing so we treat them purely as means to our ends” The second quote is a more explicit reference to Kant’s second Categorical Imperative (CI). Singer disagrees with Kant; instead favoring the idea that sentience alone is enough to justify extending rights to animals. #10-Tom Regan – Radical Egalitarian Case for Animal Rights Page 84: “Rather, we can do wrong acts that involve animals, and so we have duties regarding them, though none to them. Such views may be called indirect duty views.” The first quote is an implicit reference to Kant’s idea that we all have indirect to animals as a result of their worth to humans. Page 84: “…all of our duties regarding animals are indirect duties to one another – to humanity.” The second quote more explicitly explains the first quote. It should be noted that Regan feels that indirect duty views fail to command our rational assent and states that we need to have a direct duty to animals as well as indirect. Page 88: “All who have inherent value have it equally, whether they be human animals or not.” This explains Regan’s main point (going against Kant) that animals are ends in themselves because they have inherent value. According to him, everything that is an experiencing-subject-of-a-life deserves to be treated with respect. He wants to abolish the system that allows us to use animals as our resources. #11-Mary Warren – A Critique of Regan’s Animal Rights Theory Page 94: “But it is morally relevant insofar as it provides greater possibilities for cooperation and for the nonviolent resolution of problems.” The first quote is a very explicit reference to Kant’s idea that rational beings have moral worth. M. Warren believes that animals are deserving of rights but that humans should have superior rights (moral rights) because they cannot reason, negotiate, or cooperate. Page 95: “We protect them [animals] not only for their sake but also for our own, lest we be hurt by harm done to them.” The second quote again goes back to Kant’s idea that we have an indirect duty to animals as a result of their worth to humans. She still believes that sentient beings should not be deliberately harmed unless absolutely necessary.
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#13-Holmes Rolston – Naturalizing Values: Organisms and Species Page 110: “Perhaps nothing is “astounding” until a human being comes around to be astounded.” Page 110: “We humans can and ought to place such value on natural things, at times, but there is no value already in place before we come.” Page 113: “But there can be law without a lawgiver, history without a historian;… and value without experiencing valuers.”
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