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Unformatted text preview: The "nationalist rally," which Alfred and his family pass on their way to church at the beginning of Chapter 4, and whose supporters Alfred later encounters, further reflects the culture of the time. During the century from the Civil War (1861–65) to the setting of the novel (1960s), African Americans struggled with the question of whether to try to live with whites or separate from them. Marcus Garvey, who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1916, led one of the first popular black nationalist movements. However, it was Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam (NOI) and Malcolm X's Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) that dominated the black nationalist scene in Harlem in the 1960s. The roots of the NOI were in Detroit, where a salesman named Wallace D. Fard (pronounced fa- ROOD) founded the Temple of Islam in the early 1930s. In just a few years, Fard developed the ROOD) founded the Temple of Islam in the early 1930s....
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course ENG 3320 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at University of Houston.
- Fall '09