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Lab.15.2011 - 15 OPENINGMODE FRACTURES(JOINTS AND DIKES I...

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12/5/11 1 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES (JOINTS AND DIKES) I Main Topics A Why are opening mode fractures important? B Geometry C KinemaOcs D Mechanics E Key take-­૒away points 12/5/11 GG303 1 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Joint Sets 12/5/11 GG303 2 hTp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Joints_Caithness.JPG Map of Joints. From Segall and Pollard, 1983.
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12/5/11 2 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Radial joints in a stock (from Rogers and Gerla and, 1988) 12/5/11 GG303 3 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Radial Joints 12/5/11 GG303 4
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12/5/11 3 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Columnar Joints 12/5/11 GG303 5 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Mudcracks 12/5/11 GG303 6
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12/5/11 4 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Shee$ng Joints Columnar Joints 12/5/11 GG303 7 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Plumose Structure 12/5/11 GG303 8
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12/5/11 5 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES Stylolites:"anO-­૒cracks" in carbonate rocks 12/5/11 GG303 9 From Rispoli (1981) via Pollard and Segall (1987) 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES III Why are opening-­૒mode fractures important? A Most common geologic structures on earth (joints) 12/5/11 GG303 10
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12/5/11 6 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES III Why are fractures important? (cont.) B Exceedingly important in heat & fluid flow (all sorts of fluids) 12/5/11 GG303 11 hTp://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/Photoglossary/fissure4_large.JPG 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES III Why are fractures important? (cont.) C Important in determining geologic & engineering rock strength 12/5/11 GG303 12 Joints at rockfall site, Utah
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12/5/11 7 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES III Why are fractures important? (cont.) D Impact on landscape and surficial processes 12/5/11 GG303 13 Joints, Utah Half Dome. Photo from Greg Stock 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES A Geometry 1 Bounded in extent 2 RelaOvely planar 12/5/11 GG303 14
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12/5/11 8 15. OPENING-­૒MODE FRACTURES A Geometry (cont.) 3 Shape of an "isolated” joint a Massive rocks: joints are probably ellipOcal or circular b Layered rocks: joints are probably rectangular 12/5/11
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