Lec.04.pptx - 8/25/11 4. MAPS I Main Topics A Why...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/25/11 4. MAPS I Main Topics A Why make geologic maps? B ConstrucDon of maps C Contour maps D IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns 8/25/11 GG303 1 The First Geologic Map of Britain by William Smith, 1815 hHp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Geological_map_Britain_William_Smith_1815.jpg 8/25/11 GG303 2 1 8/25/11 PorDon of the Geologic Map of the Bright Angel Quadrangle hHp://facweb.northseaHle.edu/tbraziunas/geol101tb_parDal/images/bright6a.gif 8/25/11 GG303 3 Geologic Map of Kauai hHp://www.fl[email protected]/5384685047/in/set ­72157626858828635/lightbox/ 8/25/11 GG303 4 2 8/25/11 Geological Map of the Confluence of the Rio Patuca and Rio Wampu, La MosquiDa, Honduras hHp://geology.csustan.edu/rrogers/honduras/map2v1c.jpg 8/25/11 GG303 5 Map of small faults and joints at the Bear Creek Camp Outcrop From Martel et al., 1988 8/25/11 GG303 6 3 8/25/11 4. MAPS II Why make geologic maps? A DocumentaDon of structural geometry (and sequence of events) B To force us to look closely; maps act like a tool for observaDon C PaHern recogniDon at a useful and appropriate scale. Many structures are too large or outcrop is too poor to see otherwise. D To develop conceptual models for kinemaDc and mechanical reconstrucDons of how structures form E To help define boundary condiDons for mechanical models 8/25/11 GG303 7 4. MAPS III ConstrucDon of maps A Establish control points on ground and map B Transfer geometric informaDon at or near control point to map C Link informaDon between control points 8/25/11 GG303 8 4 8/25/11 4. MAPS IV Contour maps: Maps that represent surfaces in terms of a series of curves A An individual contour represents a part of the surface along which the surface "value” is constant. B Topographic contour map: contour lines represent points of equal elevaDon of the ground surface. 1 Streams flow downhill (contours vee upstream) 2  Contours for a ridge "point” down the ridge 8/25/11 GG303 9 4. MAPS C Structure contour map: contour lines represent points of equal elevaDon along a geologic surface (e.g., the top of a geologic unit) that commonly is buried. If the values of a structure contour map are subtracted from the values on a corresponding topographic map, the difference gives the depth from the ground surface to the top of the geologic unit. D Isopach contour map: contour lines represent points of equal thickness of the geologic unit E Given a data set (x, y, z), one can prepare a contour map of z (e.g., concentraDon of contaminaDon in ground water) vs. (x, y)  ­ See last page in notes of Lec. 4  ­ 8/25/11 GG303 10 5 8/25/11 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns A Geologic maps show the intersecDon (trace) of geologic features with the ground surface, a surface that is generally subhorizontal but irregular (i.e., with 3 ­D relief). B Geologic maps are not top views of subsurface features as projected into a horizontal plane. hHp://facweb.northseaHle.edu/tbraziunas/geol101tb_parDal/images/bright6a.gif 8/25/11 GG303 11 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns C ConstrucDon of a syntheDc geologic map using Matlab and Adobe Illustrator >> >> x= ­2:0.1:2; >> y=x; >> [x,y] = meshgrid(x,y); >> z=peaks(x,y); >> A = mesh(x,y,z); 8/25/11 SyntheDc Topographic Surface GG303 12 6 8/25/11 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns (cont.) C ConstrucDon of a syntheDc geologic map using Matlab and Adobe Illustrator >> x= ­2:0.1:2; >> y=x; >> [x,y] = meshgrid(x,y); >> z=peaks(x,y); >> A = mesh(x,y,z); >> z1 = 2*y; >> hold on >> surf(x,y,z1) 8/25/11 SyntheDc Topographic Surface With Inclined Geologic Surface GG303 13 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns (cont.) C ConstrucDon of a syntheDc geologic map using Matlab and Adobe Illustrator >> x= ­2:0.1:2; >> y=x; >> [x,y] = meshgrid(x,y); >> z=peaks(x,y); >> A = mesh(x,y,z); >> z1 = 2*y; >> hold on >> surf(x,y,z1) >> view(0,90) 8/25/11 View From Above GG303 14 7 8/25/11 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns (cont.) C ConstrucDon of a syntheDc geologic map using Matlab and Adobe Illustrator Trace of Planar Geologic Feature Matlab figure imported into Illustrator and contact traced 8/25/11 GG303 15 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns (cont.) D The strike of a geologic surface is obtained by determining the azimuth between two points on the geologic surface that have the same elevaDon (i.e., that lie along the intersecDon of the geologic surface and a horizontal plane). 8/25/11 GG303 16 8 8/25/11 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns (cont.) E A strike view cross secDon is taken perpendicular to the strike of a geologic body. It shows the true dip and true thickness of the body. 8/25/11 GG303 17 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns F The contacts of horizontal layers parallel elevaDons contours. hHp://facweb.northseaHle.edu/tbraziunas/geol101tb_parDal/images/bright6a.gif 8/25/11 GG303 18 9 8/25/11 4. MAPS V IntroducDon to geologic map paHerns (cont.) G The contacts of verDcal geologic surfaces appear as straight lines on geologic maps with a topographic base. hHp://facweb.northseaHle.edu/tbraziunas/geol101tb_parDal/images/bright6a.gif 8/25/11 GG303 19 4. MAPS •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  % Matlab script for producing contour map examples x= ­2:0.2:2; % Values of x range from –2 to +2; y= ­2:0.2:2; % Values of y range from –2 to +2; [X,Y]=meshgrid(x,y); % Makes grid of x and y at each point; Z=(peaks(X,Y)); % Matlab’s “peaks” funcDon; clf % Clears any prior plots; subplot(2,2,1) % First plot of 2 rows and 2 columns Surf(X,Y,Z); % 3 ­D perspecDve plot; xlabel('x') % Labels the x ­axis as 'x'; ylabel('y') % Labels the y ­axis as 'y'; Dtle('Surface Plot of the Peaks FuncDon') subplot(2,2,2) % Second plot of 2 rows and 2 columns; c= contour(X,Y,Z); % Calculates the contour line posiDons; clabel(c) % This plots and labels the contour map; xlabel('x') ylabel('y') Dtle('Contour Plot of the Peaks FuncDon') [DX,DY] = gradient(Z,.2,.2); subplot(2,2,3) % Third plot of 2 rows and 2 columns; contour(X,Y,Z) hold on % Allows arrows to plot on contour plot; quiver(X,Y, ­DX, ­DY); % This plots the arrows; colormap hsv % Assigns the hsv color scheme to plot; grid off % Turns off plo{ng of grid; hold off xlabel('x') ylabel('y') Dtle('Contour Plot and NegaDve Gradient of Peaks FuncDon') subplot(2,2,4) % Fourth plot of 2 rows and 2 columns; contour(X,Y,Z,[0 0]) % Plots one contour line (here it’s 0); xlabel('x') ylabel('y') Dtle('Zero Contour of Peaks FuncDon') 8/25/11 GG303 20 10 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course GEOLOGY 300 taught by Professor Stephenmartel during the Fall '11 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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