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# Lec.07 - 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES I Main...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES I Main Topics A Vector length and direcCon B Vector Products 9/6/11 GG303 1 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES 9/6/11 GG303 2 1 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES C Example III Vector length and direcCon A Vector length: A = 1.5 i + 2 j + 0 k A = 1.5 2 + 2 2 + 0 2 = 6.25 = 2.5 2 2 A = Ax + Ay + Az2 B Vector A can be deﬁned by its length |A| and the direcCon of a parallel unit vector a (which is given by its direcCon cosines). A = |A|a. C Unit vector a has vector components Axi/|A|, Ayj/|A|, and Azk/|A|, where i, j, and k are unit vectors along the x, y, and z axes, respecCvely. 9/6/11 1.5 2 0 i+ j+ k 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 4 a = i + j + 0 k = 0.6 i + 0.8 j + 0 k 5 5 a= GG303 3 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES III Vector Products A Dot product: A • B = M 1 M is a scalar 2 If B is a unit vector b, then A • b (or b • A) is the projecCon of A onto the direcCon deﬁned by b 9/6/11 GG303 4 2 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES A Dot product (cont.) 3 Let unit vectors a and b parallel vectors A and B, respecCvely. The angle between a and b (and A and B) is θab. Conveniently cos(θab) = cos( ­θab). a a•b = cos(θab) = b•a b A = |A|a, and B = |B|b. From (a) and (b) c A • B = |A| |B| cos(θab) 9/6/11 |A| = length of A GG303 5 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES A Dot product (cont.) 4  Dot Product Tables of Cartesian Vectors i j k Bxi Byj Bzk i• 1 0 0 Axi• AxBx 0 0 j• 0 1 0 Ayj• 0 AyBy 0 k• 0 0 1 Azk• 0 0 AzBz 5 For unit vectors er and es along axes of a Cartesian frame er • es = 1 if r=s er • es = 0 if r≠s 6 A • B = ( Ai i + A j j + Ak k ) • ( Bi i + B j j + Bk k ) A • B = Ai Bi + A j B j + Ak Bk 9/6/11 GG303 6 3 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES A Dot product (cont.) 7  In Matlab, c = A•B is performed as a c = dot(A,B) b c = A(:)’*B(:) 8 Uses in geology: all kinds of projecCons 9/6/11 >> A = [1,2,3] A = 1 2 3 >> B=A B = 1 2 3 >> c = dot(A,B) c = 14 >> c=A(:)'*B(:) c = 14 GG303 7 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES II Vector Products (cont.) B Cross product: A x B = C 1  C is a vector 2  C is perpendicular to the AB plane 3  DirecCon of C by right ­hand rule 4  A x B =  ­B x A Note that here, A, B, and C are points, not vectors AB x AC yields downward pole A,B,C form clockwise circuit 9/6/11 GG303 8 4 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES B Cross product (cont.) c Example A = 2 i + 0 j + 0 k, B = 0 i + 2 j + 0 k 5 Let unit vectors a and b parallel vectors A and B, A = 2, B = 2 respecCvely. The angle AxB = ( 2 ) ( 2 ) sin ( 90° ) k = 4 k between a and b (and A and B) is θab. a axb = sin(θab) n, where n is a unit normal to the AB plane b A x B = |A|a x |B|b = |A||B|(a x b) = |A||B|sin(θab) n 9/6/11 GG303 9 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES B Cross product (cont.) 6 |A x B|is the area of the parallelogram deﬁned by vectors A and B, where A and B are along adjacent side of the parallelogram. In the ﬁgure below, AxB points into the page, and BxA points out of the page. 9/6/11 GG303 10 5 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES A Cross product (cont.) 7 Cross Product Tables of Cartesian Vectors i j k i x 0 k  ­j j x  ­k 0 i k x j  ­i Bxi 0 Byj Bzk Axi• 0 AxByk  ­Axj Ayj•  ­AyBxk 0 Ayi Azk• AzBxj  ­AzByi 0 8 AxB = ( Ax i + Ay j + Az k ) • ( Bx i + By j + Bz k ) ( ) ( ) AxB = Ay Bz − Az By i − ( Ax Bz − Az Bx ) j + Ax By − Ay Bx k 9 AxB = j k Ax Ay Az Bx 9/6/11 i By Bz Determinant GG303 11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES B Cross product (cont.) 10 In Matlab, C = A•B is performed as C = cross(A,B) 11 Uses in geology a Finding poles to a plane from 3 coplanar pts b Finding axes of cylindrical folds from poles to bedding 9/6/11 >> A = [2 0 0] A = 2 0 0 >> B = [0 2 0] B = 0 2 0 >> C = cross(A,B) C = 0 0 4 GG303 12 6 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES III Vector Products C Scalar triple product: (A,B,C) = A •(B × C) = V 1 The vector triple product is a scalar (i.e., a number) that corresponds to a volume the volume of a parallelepiped with edges along A, B, and C. 2  |V|≥ 0 9/6/11 GG303 13 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES C Scalar triple product (cont.) 3 The determinant of a 3x3 matrix reﬂects the volume of a parallelepiped i j By Bz Cx Cy Cz Ax k V = A • ( BxC ) = A • Bx 9/6/11 = Ay Az Bx By Bz Cx Cy Cz GG303 14 7 9/6/11 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES C Scalar triple product (cont.) 4 In Matlab: V = A • (B × C) is performed as V = dot (A,cross(B,C)) 5 Uses in geology a EquaCon of plane b EsCmaCng volume of ore bodies 9/6/11 GG303 15 7. VECTORS, TENSORS, AND MATRICES D Invariants 1  QuanCCes that do not depend on the orientaCon of a reference frame 2  Examples a Dot product (a length) b Scalar triple product (a volume) 9/6/11 GG303 16 8 ...
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